There is ample evidence to show that homosexuality, in a certain proportion of cases, has its roots in childhood. Follow-up observations in the literature, as well as those reported here, show a high risk of homosexuality in children with deviant gender-role behavior, that is, effeminate or sissy boys and tomboyish girls. Family backgrounds of those children show no consistent pattern.

A discussion of whether gender-role behavior is inborn or learned is included. The author inclines to the view that it is inborn.

Suggestions for management, which are designed to encourage gender appropriate behavior and to prevent homosexuality are offered.

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