Serum insulin and glucose measurements were performed soon after birth in 12 infants with erythroblastosis fetalis (EBF) and 14 normal neonates. In addition, in eight infants with EBF, insulin levels were determined at birth and again prior to exchange transfusion. Significant elevation of serum immunoreactive insulin (29.6 ± 5.1 versus 10.1 ± 2.2 µU/ml, mean ± SEM) was found in the EBF group and was not related to bilirubin levels or hematocrits. Comparison between immunoreactive insulin level at birth and prior to exchange transfusion showed no difference. The possibility of predisposition to hypoglycemia in EBF should lead to frequent monitoring of blood glucose and appropriate measures to prevent or treat this complication.

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