Twelve control and nine gestational diabetic mothers (GDM) and their infants were studied at birth. All GDM were obese. The criteria for selection of control mothers were a negative family history for diabetes, a normal oral glucose tolerance test, and the presence of obesity. The mean birth weights of the infants were not significantly different. All infants received a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), completed within the first 24 hours of life. Glucose, serum immunoreactive insulin and growth hormone levels were determined.
The mean glucose values obtained at the time of delivery revealed no significant differences between the GDM and the control mothers or between the infants of gestational diabetic mothers (IGDM) and the normal control infants.
At birth, the mean seruni insulin levels of the GDM and the IGDM were both significantly higher than were their control GDM and IGDM.
The OGTT was performed between 0 and 21 hours after birth and after a 4-hour fast. The mean fasting blood glucose level of the IGDM was significantly lower than that of the control infants, p≤.02. However, during the OGTT, the normal control infants showed a disposal of glucose similar to the IGDM. No evidence of hyperinsulinemia was observed in either the control infants or the infants of gestational diabetic mothers.
The mean growth hormone values for the infants at the time of delivery revealed no significant differences between the two study groups. During the OGTT, the IGDM had significantly higher mean growth hormone values at both 60 and 120 minutes.