Twenty-seven renal allotransplants were performed in 25 children less than 17 years of age between April 1964 and September 1969. Sixteen were from living, related donors, and 11 were from cadaver donors. There was one death and one rejection in the living donor group, and five deaths and one rejection in the cadaver donor group. Ten recipients weighed less than 20 kg, and all but two received adult kidneys. Four children received transplants because of bilateral Wilms' tumor.
Complications included infection, immunologic rejection, pulmonary disease, recurrence of glomerulonephritis, and aseptic necrosis of bone. Growth retardation occurred in 7 of 10 children and sexual development was delayed in 2 of 3 children following transplantation. These factors were best correlated with steroid administration. Rehabilitation was generally good, however; and the results of transplantation in children equalled or surpassed those in adults.