The contents of serotonin (hydroxytryptamine) and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in the blood of 11 hyperactive children and 11 controls were determined on an outpatient basis. A significant decrease in serotonin content was found in blood samples from hyperactive patients as compared with controls. There were no differences in PLP content of blood between the two groups. Four children were selected for a study of the effects of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) on low serotonin levels. Oral doses of pyridoxine resulted in an appreciable increase in the serotonin content and a very large increase in the PLP content of blood in these hyperactive patients.

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