The clinical course and renal pathology of 17 children with acute extracapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis is reported. Patients with systemic ses associated with renal involvement were excluded. The onset followed streptococcal infection in ten; of these, four have died, one has been transplanted, and the remaining five have completely healed. The mean follow-up of the latter five patients was 32 months (range, 18 to 57 months). Of the other seven patients without evidence of preceding streptococcal infection, two have died, two have been transplanted, and the remaining three all have hypertension, proteinuria, and reduced creatinine clearance. The mean follow-up of the latter three patients was 29 months (range, 14 to 38 months). The initial renal histopathologic changes and their progress in later renal biopsies is described. The role of various therapeutic agents is discussed. The prognosis in acute extracapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis following streptococcal infection appears to be better than in ones without preceding streptococcal infection.

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