This paper summarizes an experiment evaluating the effectiveness of primary pediatric care delivered to a sample of low-income inner-city families. Primary pediatric care in this study was similar to pediatric group practice. The study findings indicated that the effects of primary care compared with the episodic care received by the control families were appreciable. This included the decreasing of hospitalizations, operations, illness visits, and appointment breaking; increasing of health supervision visits, preventive services, and patient satisfactions; and accomplishing these changes at a lower cost. Patient morbidity was not altered. Medicaid made no difference in the care patterns of the experimental families and apparently benefited only those control families who were white. The controlled clinical trial offers the best opportunity to compare different models of primary care and the data obtained can be used for planning health services for children.

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