In the article "First Aid for the Choking Child" (Pediatrics 67:744, 1981), advice is given that is contrary to the vast majority of studies and reports in the medical literature. The methods recommended in the article not only have little scientific support, but also have led to serious complications and death as evidenced by numerous well-documented cases.
The first treatment for the choking child according to the Pediatrics article is forceful administration of four back blows. No reference has been found to indicate why four back blows are better or worse than one or ten.
From the time of the study by Gross1 in 1854, to the present, there have been many published studies warning against the use of back blows.2-22