There are many claims that abnormal breathing patterns alter facial growth; however, there are limited controlled data to confirm these claims. Thirty children with allergy, aged 6 to 12 years, who had moderate-to-severe nasal mucosal edema on physical examination and who appeared to breathe predominantly through the mouth and 15 children without allergy who had normal findings from nasal examination and who appeared to breathe predominantly through the nose were evaluated. All subjects received an intraoral clinical examination and cephalometric radiograph analysis. In comparison with children who breathed through the nose, children who breathed through the mouth had longer faces with narrower maxillae and retruded jaws. This supports the hypothesis that children with nasal obstruction and who appear to breathe through the mouth have distinctive facial characteristics.
Facial Characteristics of Children Who Breathe Through the Mouth
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Dante Bresolin, Gail G. Shapiro, Peter A. Shapiro, Steven W. Dassel, Clifton T. Furukawa, William E. Pierson, Michael Chapko, C. Warren Bierman; Facial Characteristics of Children Who Breathe Through the Mouth. Pediatrics May 1984; 73 (5): 622–625. 10.1542/peds.73.5.622
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