A randomized, prospective study was done to assess the efficacy of single-dose v conventional treatment of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in female adolescents. Thirty-one 12- to 18-year-old female adolescents with symptoms of an acute UTI and a urine culture with greater than 105 organisms were treated with amoxicillin, either as a 3.0-g single dose or 250-mg three times daily for ten days. Urine cultures obtained three days after completing therapy in each group, showed bacteriologic cure rate of 69% (11/16) with single-dose treatment compared with a cure rate of 87% (13/15) in the conventional treatment group (P = .23). When patients with resistant organisms were excluded, the cure rate was 85% in both groups. Complete symptom resolution in less than two days after commencing treatment occurred in 36% of single-dose group v none of the patients in the conventional-dose group. The finding has not been previously reported in single-dose trials. Candida vaginitis occurred in 20% of the conventional-dose group v none of the single-dose group. All patients in the single-dose group kept their first scheduled follow-up appointment, whereas 40% in the conventional group required reminders and rescheduling. Perfect compliance with the medication regimen was reported by 27% of the patients taking ten days of medicine. Although single-dose cure rates may not be superior to conventional-dose rates, the advantages of single-dose treatment include increased compliance with medication and follow-up, decreased side effects, and more rapid resolution of symptoms.

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