To evaluate access to health care for American children and adolescents, a telephone survey of a national random sample of households was conducted in which 2182 children 17 years or younger were studied. Approximately 10% had no medical insurance; 10% had no regular source of care; and 18% identified emergency rooms, community clinics, or hospital outpatient departments as their usual site of medical care. Children who were uninsured, poor, or nonwhite were less likely to have seen a physician in the past year (P < .001), and uninsured children were less likely to have up-to-date immunizations. Logistic regression analyses revealed that poor, uninsured, or nonwhite children less frequently had a regular source of care; more frequently used emergency rooms, community clinics, and hospital outpatient departments as their regular providers; and more frequently encountered financial barriers to health care. Low-income or nonwhite children had much less access to care compared with children from more affluent or white families, independent of insurance status or health status.
Access to Medical Care for Children and Adolescents in the United States
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David L. Wood, Rodney A. Hayward, Christopher R. Corey, Howard E. Freeman, Martin F. Shapiro; Access to Medical Care for Children and Adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics November 1990; 86 (5): 666–673. 10.1542/peds.86.5.666
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