This study focuses on a consecutive series of 31 boys, aged 5 years 3 months to 14 years 9 months, who had a first diagnosed urinary tract infection. A questionnaire administered after diagnosis revealed that 10 of these boys injected water into their urethra while taking a bath in the few days preceding the onset of infection. Neither presenting symptoms nor urine tests can distinguish self-inflicted infections from infections occurring spontaneously. However, no urinary tract malformations were detected among the boys with a history of urethral manipulation whereas one third of the other 21 boys had anomalies. If these data are confirmed by other studies, complete imaging investigation could then be avoided in such cases. It could also become possible to prevent a number of urinary tract infections in school-age boys by warning parents and children of the serious risks of self-instrumentation.

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