The neuropsychological development of 15 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive children infected through neonatal blood transfusion was compared with that of a control group of 33 HIV-1 seronegative children who had also received blood transfusions as neonates. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection was identified on the basis of a callback blood testing. Two thirds of the HIV-1-infected children were asymptomatic at time of enrollment in the study of development. The children were administered two psychological batteries approximately 8 months apart. The results indicated that the two serostatus groups did not differ in overall intelligence, even as long as 8 years after HIV-1 infection. Significant group differences, though slight, were found on school achievement and on tasks that require motor speed, visual scanning, and cognitive flexibility. Continued longitudinal study of this cohort will be important in characterizing the evolution of neuropsychological deficits.

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