The effect of 8 weeks of daily oral fish oil supplementation in a dose of 3 to 8 g/d on serum lipid levels was studied in 16 patients, 7 to 8 years of age, who had end-stage renal disease and were receiving renal replacement therapy. Fasting serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TG) levels, and lipoprotein profiles were measured before therapy, 8 weeks after fish oil supplementation, and 4 weeks after its cessation. During 8 weeks of treatment the mean serum CHOL level did not change. The mean serum TG level, however, decreased significantly (P < .01) from 236 ± 31 mg/dL to 171 ± 21 mg/dL (27.5%). Four weeks after treatment was stopped, the mean serum TG level returned to a value not significantly different from the pretreatment level (208 ± 30 mg/dL). In a subgroup of 11 excessively hyperlipidemic patients, with serum CHOL and TG levels ≥50% of the 90th percentile for age and sex, the mean serum TG level decreased even more (30.8%), from 286 ± 35 mg/dL to 198 ± 24 mg/dL (P < .01), and the mean CHOL/high-density lipoprotein CHOL ratio decreased from 8.4 ± 1.2 to 7.4 ± 1.3 (P < .05). Blood pressure and platelet counts remained stable during the entire study period. Side effects of the treatment were minimal. These results show that dietary fish oil supplementation reduces serum TG levels in young patients receiving renal replacement therapy and improves their "atherogenic" serum lipoprotein profile.

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