To test the utility of school-level interventions for child bicycle safety and to identify social and behavioral factors associated with children's bicycle helmet use, a two-level intervention was conducted in two suburban elementary schools. Children (N = 209) and parents (N = 125) in school 1 and in school 2 (children, N = 470; parents, N = 364) were surveyed regarding bicycle injuries and helmet use. Children and parents in schools 1 and 2 received literature about bicycle safety and discount coupons for helmet purchase. School 1 was then the target of an intensive safety campaign, including meetings with the school safety committee and the PTA and a classroom presentation to children emphasizing helmet use. Ten months later the same survey was again administered. Children in school 1 were more likely at posttest to believe that helmets were protective (P = .003) but did not differ on other variables. Logistic regression showed that sibling helmet ownership, parental helmet use, and lower parental perceived social barriers to helmet use were independently associated with children's reported helmet use and with parental intent for the child to use a helmet at posttest.

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