Several converging lines of evidence suggest that some behavioral and neurological abnormalities of childhood may be mediated through antineuronal antibodies.1-3 These antineuronal antibodies appear to arise in response to group A [beta]-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections and to cross-react with cells within the central nervous system (CNS).4 Based on clinical observations of children with Sydenham's chorea, Tourette's syndrome (TS), and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we hypothesize that neuroimmunological dysfunction secondary to anti-neuronal antibodies may result in behavioral disturbances, such as anxiety, emotional lability, obsessive compulsive symptoms, hyperactivity, and sleep disturbances; and neurological abnormalities, such as motor and phonic tics, ballismus, chorea, and choreiform movements.

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