The American Academy of Pediatrics and its Provisional Committee on Quality Improvement, in collaboration with experts from the Section on Neurology, general pediatricians, consultants in the fields of neurology and epilepsy, and research methodologists, developed this practice parameter. This parameter provides recommendations for the neurodiagnostic evaluation of a child with a first simple febrile seizure. These recommendations derive from both a thorough review of the literature and expert consensus. Interventions of direct interest include lumbar puncture, electroencephalography, blood studies, and neuroimaging. The methods and results of the literature review and data analyses can be found in the technical report that is available from the Publications Department of the American Academy of Pediatrics. This parameter is designed to assist pediatricians by providing an analytic framework for the evaluation and treatment of this condition. It is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for all patients with this condition. It rarely will be the only appropriate approach to the problem.