Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, mesenchymal tumor that has an increased incidence in childhood. Tumors are usually isolated to the chest, abdomen, and retroperitoneum, but metastatic presentations can be seen. Presenting symptoms are nonspecific and include fever, weight loss, pain, shortness of breath, and cough. Approximately 85% of IMTs harbor actionable kinase fusions. The diagnosis can be delayed because of overlapping features with inflammatory disorders, such as elevated inflammatory markers, increased immunoglobin G levels, fever, weight loss, and morphologic similarity with nonmalignant conditions. We present a girl aged 11 years with a TFG-ROS1 fusion–positive tumor of the lung that was initially diagnosed as an immunoglobin G4–related inflammatory pseudotumor. She underwent complete left-sided pneumonectomy and later recurred with widely metastatic disease. We then report the case of a boy aged 9 years with widely metastatic TFG-ROS1 fusion–positive IMT with rapid molecular diagnosis. In both children, there was an excellent response to oral targeted therapy. These cases reveal that rapid molecular testing of inflammatory tumors is not only important for diagnosis but also reveals therapeutic opportunities. Targeted inhibitors produce significant radiologic responses, enabling potentially curative treatment approaches for metastatic ROS1 fusion IMT with previously limited treatment options. Primary care pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists have a crucial role in the early consultation of a pediatric oncology center experienced in molecular diagnostics to facilitate a comprehensive evaluation for children with inflammatory tumors.

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