Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a powerful new tool in preventing and treating residual limb and phantom limb pain. In the adult population, TMR is rapidly becoming standard of care; however, there is a paucity of literature regarding indications and outcomes of TMR in the pediatric population. We present 2 cases of pediatric patients who sustained amputations and the relevant challenges associated with TMR in their cases. One is a 7-year-old patient who developed severe phantom and residual limb pain after a posttraumatic above-knee amputation. He failed pharmacologic measures and underwent TMR. He obtained complete relief of his symptoms and is continuing to do well 1.5 years postoperatively. The other is a 2-year-old boy with bilateral wrist and below-knee amputations as sequelae of sepsis. TMR was not performed because the patient never demonstrated evidence of phantom limb pain or symptomatic neuroma formation. We use these 2 cases to explore the challenges particular to pediatric patients when considering treatment with TMR, including capacity to report pain, risks of anesthesia, and cortical plasticity. These issues will be critical in determining how TMR will be applied to pediatric patients.

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