The 2009 recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedules have been approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy of Family Physicians. There are 3 schedules: 1 for children 0 through 6 years of age, 1 for people 7 through 18 years of age, and a catch-up immunization schedule for children and adolescents who start late or fall behind. These schedules reflect current recommendations for use of vaccines licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration and include the following changes from last year:

  • Influenza vaccine now is recommended for annual administration to children 6 months through 18 years of age. Influenza vaccine also is recommended for all eligible close contacts of children 0 through 4 years (ie, through 59 months) of age and contacts of children 5 through 18 years of age who have an underlying medical condition that predisposes them to influenza complications.

  • A second oral rotavirus vaccine has been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration. The dosing schedules for the 2 licensed rotavirus vaccines have been harmonized. The first dose of either vaccine should be administered at 6 weeks through 14 weeks 6 days of age. Immunization should not be initiated for infants 15 weeks 0 days of age or older. The final dose should be administered by 8 months 0 days of age (

  • Most of the footnotes for the individual vaccines have been revised to provide additional information and to clarify recommendations provided in the schedules.

Clinically significant adverse events that follow immunization should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Guidance about how to obtain and complete a VAERS form can be obtained on the Internet at or by calling 800-822-7967. Statements from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices with details of recommendations for individual vaccines, including recommendations for children with high-risk conditions, are available at Additional information can be found in the Red Book (28th edition forthcoming in 2009) and at Red Book Online ( Information on new vaccine releases, vaccine supplies, interim recommendations resulting from vaccine shortages, and statements on specific vaccines can be found at and

Joseph A. Bocchini, Jr, MD, Chairperson

John S. Bradley, MD

Michael T. Brady, MD

Henry H. Bernstein, DO

Carrie L. Byington, MD

Penelope H. Dennehy, MD

Margaret C. Fisher, MD

Robert W. Frenck, Jr, MD

Mary P. Glode, MD

Harry L. Keyserling, MD

David W. Kimberlin, MD

Walter A. Orenstein, MD

Lorry G. Rubin, MD

Beth P. Bell, MD

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Robert Bortolussi, MD

Canadian Paediatric Society

Richard D. Clover, MD

American Academy of Family Physicians

Marc A. Fischer, MD

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Richard L. Gorman, MD

National Institutes of Health

Lucia Lee, MD

Food and Drug Administration

Jennifer S. Read, MD, MS, MPH, DTM&H

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health

Benjamin Schwartz, MD

National Vaccine Program Office

Jeffrey R. Starke, MD

American Thoracic Society

Edgar O. Ledbetter, MD

H. Cody Meissner, MD

Larry K. Pickering, MD

Red Book Editor

Carol J. Baker, MD

Red Book Associate Editor

Sarah S. Long, MD

Red Book Associate Editor

Hope Hurley, Interim Manager

All policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years after publication unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases. Prevention of influenza: recommendations for influenza immunization of children, 2008–2009.