Geoffrey R. Simon, MD, FAAP, Chairperson

Cynthia N. Baker, MD, FAAP

Graham A. Barden, III MD, FAAP

Oscar ‘Skip’ W. Brown, III, MD, FAAP

Jesse M. Hackell, MD, FAAP

Amy P. Hardin, MD, FAAP

Kelley E. Meade, MD, FAAP

Scot B. Moore, MD, FAAP

Julia E. Richerson, MD, FAAP

Elizabeth Sobczyk, MPH, MSW

Edward S. Curry, MD, FAAP*

Paula M. Duncan, MD, FAAP

Mary Margaret Gottesman, PhD, RN, CPNP

Joseph F. Hagan, Jr, MD, FAAP

Judith S. Shaw, EdD, MPH, RN, FAAP

Jack T. Swanson, MD, FAAP

Lynn Van Pelt, DMD, CAPT, United States Public Health Service

Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration – Federal Liaison to Steering Committee

Jane B. Bassewitz, MA

This document is copyrighted and is property of the American Academy of Pediatrics and its Board of Directors. All authors have filed conflict of interest statements with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Any conflicts have been resolved through a process approved by the Board of Directors. The American Academy of Pediatrics has neither solicited nor accepted any commercial involvement in the development of the content of this publication.

Policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics benefit from expertise and resources of liaisons and internal (AAP) and external reviewers. However, policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics may not reflect the views of the liaisons or the organizations or government agencies that they represent.

The guidance in this statement does not indicate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as a standard of medical care. Variations, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate.

All policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years after publication unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time.