Background: The health of children and adolescents is strongly impacted by social factors at the individual, peer, family, school, and community levels. Risk and protective factors aid in determining those social factors, either hindering or promoting health-compromising behaviors. A technical report by the American Academy of Pediatrics stressed the importance of school readiness in supporting the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development of the child. However, due to the complex nature of these social factors, honing assessment measures of these environments in general, and the school environment specifically, are of continual importance to pediatricians, schools, school administrators, and community leaders in order to promote an atmosphere for optimal growth and learning. Objectives: To pilot test and determine internal consistency reliability of an adapted school risk and protective factor subscale among selected high school students. Methods: In this study, an instrument designed to measure risk and protective factors related to alcohol, tobacco, and other drug was adapted for use. Data were collected from a pilot study of high school students (n=17) enrolled in one public high school located in a Midwestern state in the U.S. The school environment subscale assessing risk and protective factors consisted of 20 questions: 10 questions measuring school risk factors and 10 questions measuring school protective factors. Readability using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was computed to be 6.7. Flesch Reading Ease Score was calculated to be 69.6. Results: Pilot study data was analyzed to determine internal consistency reliability for school risk and protective factor subscales through the computation of Cronbach’s alpha scores. The school risk factor subscale contained 10 items: low degree of commitment to school (LCS) consisted of 8 items (α=0.79) and poor academic achievement (PAD) consisted of 2 items (α=0.91). The school protective factor subscale contained 10 items: many opportunities for school involvement (MOSI) consisted of 6 items (α=0.75) and high perceived rewards for school involvement (HPRSI) consisted of 4 items (α=0.87). The school environment subscale was found to have overall good reliability (α=0.83). Conclusions: Acceptable internal consistency reliability coefficients for the school environment subscale suggest the instrument may have utility in further study addressing overall school health and readiness. These findings, and those from overall instrument development, may provide guidance for pediatricians in addressing school readiness; while supporting multiple-component prevention and intervention strategies targeting youth in neighborhoods, families, and/or schools.