Vaccines are safe and effective in protecting individuals and populations against infectious diseases. New vaccines are evaluated by a long-standing, rigorous, and transparent process by the US Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All available safety and efficacy data are reviewed before authorization or approval of policy recommendations.

  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination for all infants, children, and adolescents 6 months of age and older who do not have contraindications to receiving a COVID-19 vaccine authorized or approved for use for their age. This includes primary series and/or booster doses as recommended by the CDC.

  • Any COVID-19 vaccine, appropriate by age and health status, authorized through emergency use authorization or approved through a biologics license application by the FDA and recommended by the CDC, is recommended for COVID-19 vaccination according to CDC guidelines for infants, children, and adolescents.

  • Individuals ≥6 months of age with a previous asymptomatic infection or symptomatic disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 should receive COVID-19 vaccination, according to CDC guidelines.

  • Given the importance of routine vaccination and the need for rapid uptake of COVID-19 vaccines, the AAP supports coadministration of routine childhood and adolescent immunizations with COVID-19 vaccines (or vaccination in the days before or after) for infants, children, and adolescents who are behind on or due for immunizations (based on the CDC/AAP Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule) and/or at increased risk from vaccine- preventable diseases.

  • Pediatricians are encouraged to promote vaccination and vaccine confidence through ongoing, proactive messaging (ie, reminder recall, vaccine appointment/clinics), and to use existing patient visits as an opportunity to promote and provide COVID-19 vaccines.

  • Pediatricians’ role in promoting vaccination among their patient population and in their community is critical, especially among those at highest risk for severe illness, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19, as well as their household contacts. Parents, caregivers, and patients might have questions that need to be addressed related to the vaccines. Pediatricians play an essential role in helping answer these questions, as well as in reducing existing disparities and addressing any barriers to accessing COVID-19 vaccines in their community.

For additional guidance on the administration of COVID-19 vaccines, storage and handling, reporting, and patient education for each specific vaccine, visit: COVID-19 Vaccination Clinical and Professional Resources | CDC and COVID-19 Vaccine for Children (

  • Yvonne A. Maldonado, MD, FAAP, chairperson

  • Sean T. O’Leary, MD, MPH, FAAP, vice chairperson

  • Monica I. Ardura, DO, MSCS, FAAPRitu Banerjee, MD, PhD, FAAP

  • Kristina A Bryant, MD, FAAP

  • James D. Campbell, MD, MS, FAAP

  • Mary T. Caserta, MD, FAAP

  • Chandy C. John, MD, MS, FAAP

  • Jeffrey S. Gerber, MD, PhD, FAAP

  • Athena P. Kourtis, MD, PhD, MPH, FAAP

  • Adam J. Ratner, MD, MPH, FAAP

  • José R. Romero, MD, FAAP

  • Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE, FAAP

  • Kenneth M. Zangwill, MD, FAAP

  • David W. Kimberlin, MD, FAAP, Red Book editor

  • Elizabeth D. Barnett MD, FAAP, Red Book associate editor

  • Ruth Lynfield, MD, FAAP, Red Book associate editor

  • Mark H. Sawyer, MD, FAAP, Red Book associate editor

  • Henry H. Bernstein, DO, MHCM, FAAP, Red Book online associate editor

  • Karen M. Farizo, MD, US Food and Drug Administration

  • Lisa M. Kafer, MD, FAAP, Committee on Practice Ambulatory Medicine

  • David Kim, MD, HHS Office of Infectious Disease and HIV/AIDS Policy

  • Eduardo López Medina, MD, MSc, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Infectologia Pediatrica

  • Denee Moore, MD, FAAFP, American Academy of Family Physicians

  • Lakshmi Panagiotakopoulos, MD, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  • Laura Sauvé, MD, MPH, FAAP, FRCPS, Canadian Pediatric Society

  • Neil S. Silverman, MD, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

  • Jeffrey R. Starke, MD, FAAP, American Thoracic Society

  • Kay M. Tomashek, MD, MPH, DTM, National Institutes of Health

  • Melinda Wharton, MD, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  • Charles R. Woods, Jr., MD, MS, FAAP, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Jennifer M. Frantz, MPH

This document is copyrighted and is property of the American Academy of Pediatrics and its Board of Directors. All authors have filed conflict of interest statements with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Any conflicts have been resolved through a process approved by the Board of Directors. The American Academy of Pediatrics has neither solicited nor accepted any commercial involvement in the development of the content of this publication.

Policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics benefit from expertise and resources of liaisons and internal (AAP) and external reviewers. However, policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics may not reflect the views of the liaisons or the organizations or government agencies that they represent.

The recommendations in this report do not indicate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as a standard of medical care. Variations, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate.

All policy statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years after publication unless reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time.


American Academy of Pediatrics


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


coronavirus disease 2019