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Policy Statements

Organizational principles to guide and define the child health care system and/or improve the health of all children
Jennifer R. Marin, MD, MSc, FAAP, FACEP; Todd W. Lyons, MD, MPH, FAAP; Ilene Claudius, MD, FACEP; Mary E. Fallat, MD, FAAP, FACS; Michael Aquino, MD; Timothy Ruttan, MD, FACEP, FAAP; Reza J. Daugherty, MD, FAAP; AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Section on Radiology; Gregory P. Conners, MD, MPH, MBA, FAAP; Sylvia Owusu-Ansah, MD, MPH, FAAP; Kerry S. Caperell, MD, FAAP; Jennifer Hoffmann, MD, FAAP; Benson Hsu, MD, MBA, FAAP; Deborah Hsu, MD, MEd, FAAP; Jennifer E. McCain, MD, FAAP; Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MS, MBA, FAAP; Muhammad Waseem, MBBS, FAAP; Sue Tellez; AMERICAN COLLEGE OF RADIOLOGY; Hansel J. Otero, MD, FAAP; Patricia Trinidad Acharya, MD, FAAP; Adina Lynn Alazraki, MD, FAAP; Ellen Benya, MD, FAAP; Brandon Patrick Brown, MD, MA, FAAP; Laura Laskosz, MPH; AMERICAN COLLEGE OF EMERGENCY PHYSICIANS Pediatric Emergency Medicine Committee; Christopher S. Amato, MD, FACEP; Alexandria Georgadarellis, MD; Ann Marie Dietrich, MD, FACEP; Annalise Sorrentino, MD, FACEP; Ashley Foster, MD, FACEP; Carmen D. Sulton, MD, FACEP; Cindy Chang, MD; Daniel Slubowski, MD; Dina Wallin, MD, FACEP; Donna Mendez, MD; Emily A. Rose, MD, FACEP; Erika Bishop Crawford, MD; Genevieve Santillanes, MD, FACEP; George Hsu, MD; Gwendolyn C. Hooley, MD; Isabel Araujo Barata, MD, FACEP; James L. Homme, MD, FACEP; Jeffrey Michael Goodloe, MD, FACEP; Jessica J. Wall, MD, MPH, MSCE, FACEP; Jonathan Harris Valente, MD, FACEP; Joshua Easter, MD; Joyce Li, MD; Kathleen Brown, MD, FACEP; Kathleen Theresa Berg, MD, FACEP; Kiyetta Hanan Alade, MD, MEd, RDMS; Lauren Rice, MD; Madeline Matar Joseph, MD, FACEP; Marc Auerbach, MD; Marianne Gausche-Hill, MD, FACEP; Melanie Heniff, MD, JD, MHA, FACEP; Michael J. Stoner, MD, FACEP; Michael Joseph Gerardi, MD, FACEP; Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MBA, FACEP; Moon O. Lee, MD, FACEP; Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS, FACEP; Paul T. Ishimine, MD, FACEP; Samuel Hiu-Fung Lam, MD, MPH, FACEP; Sean M. Fox, MD, FAAP, FACEP; Shyam Mohan Sivasankar, MD, FACEP; Simone L. Lawson, MD, Med, FAAP, FACEP, FACEP; Siraj Amanullah, MD, MPH; Sophia D. Lin, MD; Stephen M. Sandelich, MD; Tabitha Autumn Cheng, MD; Theresa Ann Walls, MD, MPH; Zachary Burroughs, MD; Sam Shahid, MBBS, MPH
COMMITTEE ON PRACTICE & AMBULATORY MEDICINE; Jesse M. Hackell, MD, FAAP; Yvette M. Almendarez, MD, FAAP; Patricia E. Cantrell, MD, FAAP; Carolyn Cleary, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth Hawse, MD, FAAP; Lisa M. Kafer, MD, FAAP; Seth D. Kaplan, MD, FAAP; Tomitra Latimer, MD, FAAP; Alisa Skatrud, MPA; Robert H. Wiskind, MD, FAAP; Mackenzie Magnus, MBA, MPH; Maureen Cooney, MPH; Patricia E. Cantrell, MD, FAAP; Alex R. Kemper, MD, MPH, MS, FAAP; Alisa Skatrud, MPA; Robin Warner, MD, FAAP; Lauren Barone, MPH; Maureen Cooney, MPH; Mackenzie Magnus, MBA, MPH
Mary Beth Miotto, MD, MPH, FAAP; Brooke Balchan, DO, FAAP; Laurie Combe, MN, RN, NCSN, FNASN; COUNCIL ON SCHOOL HEALTH; Sonja C. O’Leary, MD, FAAP; Sara Bode, MD, FAAP; Marti Baum, MD, FAAP; Katherine A. Connor, MD, MSPH, FAAP; Emily Frank, MD, FAAP; Erica Gibson, MD, FAAP; Marian Larkin, MD, FAAP; Tracie Newman, MD, MPH, FAAP; Yuri Okuizumi-Wu, MD, FAAP; Ryan Padrez, MD, FAAP; Heidi Schumacher, MD, FAAP; Anna Goddard, PhD, APRN, CPNP-PC; Kate King, DNP, RN, MSN; Kristie Ladegard, MD; Carolyn Lullo McCarty, PhD; NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL NURSES
Renee M. Turchi, MD, MPH, FAAP; Dennis Z. Kuo, MD, MHS, FAAP; John W. Rusher, MD, JD, FAAP; Rebecca R. Seltzer, MD, MHS, FAAP; Christoph U. Lehmann, MD, FAAP; Randall W. Grout, MD, MS, FAAP; COUNCIL ON CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES; Garey Noritz, MD, FAAP, FACP; Rishi Agrawal, MD, MPH, FAAP; Deanna Bell, MD, FAAP; Jessica E.A. Foster, MD, MPH, FAAP; Ellen Fremion, MD, FAAP, FACP; Sheryl Frierson, MD, MEd, FAAP; Michelle E. Melicosta, MD, MPH, MSc, FAAP; Barbara S. Saunders, DO, FAAP; Siddharth Srivastava, MD, FAAP; Jilda Vargus-Adams, MD, MSc, FAAP; Katharine E. Zuckerman, MD, MPH, FAAP; Jeffrey P. Brosco, MD, PhD, FAAP; Carol Weitzman, MD, FAAP; Matthew Sadof, MD, FAAP; Allysa Ware, PhD, MSW; Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, MD, FAAP; Alexandra Kuznetsov; COMMITTEE ON MEDICAL LIABILITY AND RISK MANAGEMENT; James P. Scibilia, MD, FAAP; Ryan E. Alanzalon, MD, FAAP; Steven A. Bondi, JD, MD, FAAP; Craig H. Gosdin, MD, MSHA, FAAP; Kajal Khanna, MD, JD, FAAP; Jonathan Muraskas, MD, FAAP; Laura J. Sigman, MD, JD, FAAP; Preethi Srinivasakumar, MD, FAAP; Michelle Terry, MD, FAAP; Robert M. Turbow, MD, JD, FAAP; Richard L. Oken, MD, FAAP; Julie Kersten Ake
COVID-19 WORKING GROUP; Mark Del Monte, JD; Anne R. Edwards, MD, FAAP; Debra B. Waldron, MD, MPH, FAAP; Laura D. Aird, MS; Cindy Kennedy Airhart, CAE; Lisa Black Robinson; Dana Bright; Trisha M. Calabrese, MPH; Sean Diederich; Heather Fitzpatrick, MPH; Jennifer Frantz, MPH; Tamar Magarik Haro; Anne Hegland, BS; Kristin Ingstrup; Melissa Jenco, MA; Sunnah Kim, MS, RN; Susan Stevens Martin, APR; Devin Mazziotti; Monique Phillips; Jamie Poslosky; Jeremiah Salmon; Mary Claire Walsh; Mary Lou White
Richard J. Chung, MD, FSAHM, FAAP; Janet B. Lee, MD, FAAP; Jesse M. Hackell, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth M. Alderman, MD, FSAHM, FAAP; COMMITTEE ON ADOLESCENCE; Elizabeth M. Alderman, MD, FSAHM, FAAP; Elise D. Berlan, MD, MPH, FAAP; Richard J. Chung, MD, FSAHM, FAAP; Michael Colburn, MD, MEd, FAAP; Janet Lee, MD, FAAP; Maria Monge, MD, FAAP; Taraneh Shafii, MD, FAAP; Laura K. Grubb, MD, FAAP; Stephenie B. Wallace, MD, MSPH, FAAP; Anne-Marie Amies, MD; Liwei L. Hua, MD, PhD; Seema Menon, MD; Maria H. Rahmandar, MD, FAAP; Ellie Vyver, MD; Lauren Zapata, PhD, MSPH; Karen S. Smith; James Baumberger, MPP; COMMITTEE ON PRACTICE & AMBULATORY MEDICINE; Jesse Hackell, MD, FAAP; Yvette Marie Almendarez, MD, FAAP; Abeba Mebrahtu Berhane, MD, FAAP; Patricia E. Cantrell, MD, FAAP; Lisa Michele Kafer, MD, FAAP; Tomitra Latimer, MD, FAAP; Robin Warner, MD, FAAP; Robert H. Wiskind, MD, FAAP; Alisa Skatrud; Seth Kaplan, MD, FAAP; Abigail English, JD; Mackenzie Magnus; Elisha Ferguson
Erich K. Batra, MD, FAAP; Kyran Quinlan, MD, MPH, FAAP; Vincent J. Palusci, MD, MS, FAAP; Howard Needelman, MD, FAAP; Abby Collier, MS; AAP SECTION ON CHILD DEATH REVIEW AND PREVENTION; Howard Needelman, MD, FAAP; Erich K. Batra, MD, FAAP; Kirsten A. Bechtel, MD, FAAP; Carol Berkowitz, MD, FAAP; Vincent J. Palusci, MD, MS, FAAP; Lynn K. Sheets, MD, FAAP; Abby Collier, MS, NCFRP; Matthew Nestander, MD, FAAP; COUNCIL ON INJURY, VIOLENCE, AND POISON PREVENTION; Benjamin Hoffman, MD, FAAP; Alison Culyba, MD, MPH, PhD, FAAP; James Dodington, MD, FAAP; Brian Johnston, MD, MPH, FAAP; Sadiqa Kendi, MD, CPST, FAAP; Andrew Kiragu, MD, FAAP; Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP; Terri McFadden, MD, FAAP; Kevin Osterhoudt, MD, MS, FAAP; Milton Tenenbein, MD, FAAP; Kyran Quinlan, MD, MPH, FAAP; Suzanne Beno, MD; Cinnamon Dixon, DO, MPH; Laura Dunn; Jonathan Midgett, PhD; Bethany Miller, LCSW-C, MEd; Judith Qualters, PhD; Bonnie Kozial; COUNCIL ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT; Suzanne Breen Haney, MD, FAAP; Andrea Gottsegen Asnes, MD, FAAP; Amy R. Gavril, MD, MSCI, FAAP; Amanda Bird Hoffert Gilmartin, MD, FAAP; Rebecca Greenlee Girardet, MD; Nancy Dayzie Heavilin, MD, FAAP; Jennifer Matjasko, PhD; Elaine Stedt, MSW; Jeff Hudson, MA
Samantha Ahdoot, MD, FAAP; Carl R. Baum, MD, FACMT, FAAP; Mary Bono Cataletto, MD, FAAP, FCCP; Patrick Hogan, MD; Christina B. Wu, MD, MPH, FAAP; Aaron Bernstein, MD, MPH, FAAP; COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE; Aparna Bole, MD, FAAP; Sophie J. Balk, MD, FAAP; Lori G. Byron, MD, FAAP; Gredia Maria Huerta-Montañez, MD, FAAP; Philip J. Landrigan, MD, FAAP; Steven M. Marcus, MD, FAAP; Abby L. Nerlinger, MD, FAAP; Lisa H. Patel, MD, FAAP; Rebecca Philipsborn, MD, FAAP; Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH, FAAP; Lauren Zajac, MD, MHP, FAAP; Kimberly A. Gray, PhD; Jeanne Briskin; Nathaniel G. DeNicola, MD, MSc; Matt Karwowski, MD, MPH, FAAP; Mary H. Ward, PhD; Paul Spire; COUNCIL ON CHILDREN AND DISASTERS; Steven E. Krug, MD, FAAP; Sarita Chung, MD, FAAP; Carl R. Baum, MD, FACMT, FAAP; Deanna L. Dahl-Grove, MD, FAAP; H. Dele Davies, MD, MS, MHCM, FAAP; Eric J. Dziuban, MD, DTM, CPH, FAAP; Aaron H. Gardner, MD, MS, FAAP; Stephanie E. Griese, MD, MPH, FAAP; Scott M. Needle, MD, FAAP; David J. Schonfeld, MD, FAAP; Joelle N. Simpson, MD, MPH, FAAP; Stephanie Smiley, MA; SECTION ON PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY AND SLEEP MEDICINE; Richard M. Kravitz, MD, FAAP; Rajeev Bhatia, MD, FAAP; Theresa W. Guilbert, MD, FAAP; Brooke Gustafson, MD, FAAP; Binal Kancherla, MD, FAAP; Benjamin Kopp, MD, FAAP; Susan L. Millard, MD, FAAP, FCCP; Rebekah J. Nevel, MD, FAAP; Andrew G. Sokolow, MD, FAAP; Kristin Van Hook, MD, FAAP; Laura N. Laskosz, MPH; SECTION ON MINORITY HEALTH, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION; Nia Heard Garris, MD, MSc, FAAP; Kimberly Brown, MD, FAAP; Nathan Chomilo, MD, FAAP; Nathaniel Jones, MD; Patricia Rodriguez, MD, FAAP; Valencia Walker, MD, FAAP; Ngozi Onyema-Melton
COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES; Sean T. O’Leary, MD, MPH, FAAP; James D. Campbell, MD, MS, FAAP; Monica I. Ardura, DO, MSCS, FAAP; Kristina A. Bryant, MD, FAAP; Mary T. Caserta, MD, FAAP; Claudia Espinosa, MD, MSc, FAAP; Robert W. Frenck, MD, FAAP; C. Mary Healy, MD; Chandy C. John, MD, MS, FAAP; Athena P. Kourtis, MD, PhD, MPH, FAAP; Aaron Milstone, MD, FAAP; Angela L. Myers, MD, MPH, FAAP; Pia S. Pannaraj, MD, MPH, FAAP; Adam J. Ratner, MD, MPH, FAAP; Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE, FAAP; David W. Kimberlin, MD, FAAP; Ritu Banerjee, MD, PhD, FAAP; Elizabeth D. Barnett, MD, FAAP; Ruth Lynfield, MD, FAAP; Mark H. Sawyer, MD, FAAP; Michelle Barton-Forbes, MD; Cristina Cardemil, MD, MPH, FAAP; Karen M. Farizo, MD; Lisa M. Kafer, MD, FAAP; Valerie Marshall, MPH, PMP; Denee Moore, MD, FAAFP; Lakshmi Panagiotakopoulos, MD, MPH; Manisha Patel, MD, MS, MBA; Jeffrey R. Starke, MD, FAAP; Jennifer Thompson, MD; Juan Pablo Torres, MD, PhD; Melinda Wharton, MD, MPH; Charles R. Woods, MD, MS, FAAP; Gillian Gibbs, MPH
Aparna Bole, MD, FAAP; Aaron Bernstein, MD, MPH, FAAP; Michelle J. White, MD, MPH, FAAP; COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE; Aparna Bole, MD, FAAP; Sophie J. Balk, MD, FAAP; Lori G. Byron, MD, FAAP; Gredia Maria Huerta-Montañez, MD, FAAP; Philip J. Landrigan, MD, FAAP; Steven M. Marcus, MD, FAAP; Abby L. Nerlinger, MD, FAAP; Lisa H. Patel, MD, FAAP; Rebecca Philipsborn, MD, FAAP; Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH, FAAP; Lauren Zajac, MD, MHP, FAAP; Kimberly A. Gray, PhD; Jeanne Briskin; Nathaniel G. DeNicola, MD, MSc; Matt Karwowski, MD, MPH, FAAP; Mary H. Ward, PhD; Paul Spire; SECTION ON MINORITY HEALTH, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION; Nia Heard Garris, MD, MSc, FAAP; Kimberly Brown, MD, FAAP; Nathan Chomilo, MD, FAAP; Nathaniel Jones, MD; Patricia Rodriguez, MD, FAAP; Valencia Walker, MD, FAAP; Ngozi Onyema-Melton
P. Gail Williams, MD, FAAP; Michael Yogman, MD, FAAP; COUNCIL ON EARLY CHILDHOOD; Jill Sells, MD, FAAP; Sherri Alderman, MD, FAAP; Nerissa Bauer, MD, FAAP; Andrew Hashikawa, MD, FAAP; James Guevara, MD, FAAP; Dipesh Navsaria, MPH, MSLIS, MD, FAAP; Bergen Nelson, MD, FAAP; Georgina Peacock, MD, FAAP; Amy Shriver, MD, FAAP; Jennifer Takagishi, MD, FAAP; Douglas Vanderbilt, MD, FAAP; Katiana Garagozlo, MD; Ami Gadhia; Dina Lieser, MD, FAAP; Lucy Recio; Florence Rivera, MPH, CAE; COMMITTEE ON PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF CHILD AND FAMILY HEALTH; Arthur Lavin, MD, FAAP; George LaMonte Askew, MD, FAAP; Nerissa S. Bauer, MD, MPH; Evelyn Berger-Jenkins, MD, FAAP; Thresia B. Gambon, MD, MBA, MPH, FAAP; Tiffani Jenae Johnson, MD, FAAP; Douglas P. Jutte, MD, MPH, FAAP; Arwa Abdulhaq Nasir, MBBS, MSc, MPH, FAAP; Rachel Shana Segal, MD, FAAP; Lawrence S. Wissow, MD, MPH, FAAP; Rebecca A. Baum, MD; Sharon Berry, PhD, LP; Edward R. Christophersen, PhD, FAAP; Kathleen Hobson Davis; Norah L. Johnson, PhD, RN, CPNP-BC; Abigail Boden Schlesinger, MD; Amy Starin, PhD, LCSW; Carolyn McCarty, PhD; Robyn Wheatley, MPH
Sophie J. Balk, MD, FAAP; Risa E. Bochner, MD, FAAP; Mahindra A. Ramdhanie, AuD, FAAA, CCC-A; Brian K. Reilly, MD, FAAP, FACS; COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE; Aparna Bole, MD, FAAP; Sophie J. Balk, MD, FAAP; Lori G. Byron, MD, FAAP; Gredia Maria Huerta-Montañez, MD, FAAP; Steven M. Marcus, MD, FAAP; Abby L. Nerlinger, MD, FAAP; Nicholas C. Newman, DO, FAAP; Lisa H. Patel, MD, FAAP; Rebecca Philipsborn, MD, FAAP; Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH, FAAP; Lauren Zajac, MD, MHP, FAAP; Aaron Bernstein, MD, MPH, FAAP; Philip J. Landrigan, MD, FAAP; Jeanne Briskin; Nathaniel G. DeNicola, MD, MSc; Kimberly A. Gray, PhD; Matt Karwowski, MD, MPH, FAAP; Mary H. Ward, PhD; Paul Spire; SECTION ON OTOLARYNGOLOGY–HEAD AND NECK SURGERY; Steven E. Sobol, MD, FAAP; Kristina W. Rosbe, MD, FAAP; Cristina Marie Baldassari, MD, FAAP; G. Paul DiGoy, MD, FAAP; Kris R. Jatana, MD, FAAP; Anna Katrine Meyer, MD, FAAP; Peggy Elaine Kelley, MD, FAAP; Eileen Margolies Raynor, MD, FAAP; Brian Kip Reilly, MD, FAAP; Jeffrey Philip Simons, MD, FAAP; Vivian B. Thorne
Jennifer D. Kusma, MD, MS, FAAP; Jean L. Raphael, MD, MPH, FAAP; James M. Perrin, MD, FAAP; Mark L. Hudak, MD, FAAP; COMMITTEE ON CHILD HEALTH FINANCING; James M. Perrin, MD, FAAP; Lisa Chamberlain, MD, MPH, FAAP; Jennifer D. Kusma, MD, MS, FAAP; William Bernard Moskowitz, MD, FAAP; Alison Amidei Galbraith, MD, FAAP; Jean L. Raphael, MD, MPH, FAAP; Renee M. Turchi, MD, MPH, FAAP; Angelo P. Giardino, MD, FAAP; Mike Chen, MD, FAAP; Todd Wolynn, MD, MMM, FAAP; Hope Glassberg; Elizabeth Patchias; Sunnah Kim; Stephanie Glier; Dan Walter; Todd Fraley; Nicholas Wallace
COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES; Sean T. O’Leary, MD, MPH, FAAP; James D. Campbell, MD, MS, FAAP; Monica I. Ardura, DO, MSCS, FAAP; Ritu Banerjee, MD, PhD, FAAP; Kristina A. Bryant, MD, FAAP; Mary T. Caserta, MD, FAAP; Robert W. Frenck, Jr, MD, FAAP; Jeffrey S. Gerber, MD, PhD, FAAP; Chandy C. John, MD, MS, FAAP; Athena P. Kourtis, MD, PhD, MPH, FAAP; Angela Myers, MD, MPH, FAAP; Pia Pannaraj, MD, MPH, FAAP; Adam J. Ratner, MD, MPH, FAAP; Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE, FAAP; Kristina A. Bryant, MD, FAAP; Annika M. Hofstetter, MD, PhD, MPH, FAAP; Juan D. Chaparro, MD, MS, FAAP; Jeremy J. Michel, MD, MHS, FAAP; David W. Kimberlin, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth D. Barnett, MD, FAAP; Ruth Lynfield, MD, FAAP; Mark H. Sawyer, MD, FAAP; Henry H. Bernstein, DO, MHCM, FAAP; Cristina V. Cardemil, MD, MPH, FAAP; Karen M. Farizo, MD; Lisa M. Kafer, MD, FAAP; David Kim, MD, MA; Eduardo López Medina, MD, MSc; Denee Moore, MD, FAAFP; Lakshmi Panagiotakopoulos, MD, MPH; José R. Romero, MD, FAAP; Laura Sauvé, MD, MPH, FAAP, FRCPS; Jeffrey R. Starke, MD, FAAP; Jennifer Thompson, MD; Melinda Wharton, MD, MPH; Charles R. Woods, Jr, MD, MS, FAAP; Jennifer M. Frantz, MPH; Gillian Gibbs, MPH
Alison A. Galbraith, MD, MPH, FAAP; Jonathan Price, MD, FAAP; Claire Abraham, MD, FAAP; Angelo P. Giardino, MD, MPH, PhD, FAAP; COMMITTEE ON CHILD HEALTH FINANCING; James M. Perrin, MD, FAAP; Jonathan Price, MD, FAAP; Lisa Chamberlain, MD, MPH, FAAP; Mike Chen, MD, FAAP; Sandy L. Chung, MD, FAAP, FACHE; Alison A. Galbraith, MD, MPH, FAAP; Angelo P. Giardino, MD, MPH, PhD, FAAP; Kimberly A. Heggen, MD, FAAP; Jennifer Kusma, MD, FAAP; William Moskowitz, MD, FAAP; Stephen A. Pearlman, MD, MSHQS, FAAP; Jean L. Raphael, MD, FAAP; Renee Turchi, MD, MPH, FAAP; Teresa Salaway, MHA
Mandy A. Allison, MD, MSPH, MEd, FAAP; Nathaniel Beers, MD, MPA, FAAP; Jaime W. Peterson, MD, MPH, FAAP; COUNCIL ON SCHOOL HEALTH; Sonja C. O’Leary, MD, FAAP; Sara Bode, MD, FAAP; Marti Baum, MD, FAAP; Katherine A. Connor, MD, MSPH, FAAP; Emily Frank, MD, FAAP; Erica Gibson, MD, FAAP; Marian Larkin, MD, FAAP; Tracie Newman, MD, MPH, FAAP; Yuri Okuizumi-Wu, MD, FAAP; Ryan Padrez, MD, FAAP; Heidi Schumacher, MD, FAAP; Anna Goddard, PhD, APRN, CPNP-PC; Kate King, DNP, RN, MSN; Erika Ryst, MD; Carolyn McCarty, PhD
Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MS, MBA, FAAP, FACEP; Susan Duffy, MD, MPH, FAAP; Dina Wallin, MD; Jennifer A. Hoffmann, MD, FAAP; Madeline M. Joseph, MD, FAAP, FACEP; Jennifer Schieferle Uhlenbrock, DNP, MBA, RN, TCRN; Kathleen Brown, MD, FAAP; Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS, FAAP, FACEP, CHSE-A; Sally Snow, BSN, RN, CPEN, FAEN; Madeline Andrew, MD; Alice A. Kuo, MD, PhD, MBA, FAAP; Carmen Sulton, MD, FAAP; Thomas Chun, MD, MPH, FAAP; Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP, FACEP; AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; Gregory P. Conners, MD, MPH, MBA, FAAP, FACEP; James Callahan, MD, FAAP; Toni Gross, MD, MPH, FAAP; Madeline M. Joseph, MD, FAAP, FACEP; Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP, FACEP; Elizabeth Mack, MD, MS, FAAP; Jennifer Marin, MD, MSc, FAAP; Suzan Mazor, MD, FAAP; Ronald Paul, MD, FAAP; Nathan Timm, MD, FAAP; Mark Cicero, MD, FAAP; Ann Dietrich, MD, FACEP; Andrew Eisenberg, MD, MHA; Mary Fallat, MD, FAAP; Sue Tellez; AMERICAN COLLEGE OF EMERGENCY PHYSICIANS Pediatric Emergency Medicine Committee; Ann M. Dietrich, MD; Kiyetta H. Alade, MD; Christopher S. Amato, MD; Zaza Atanelov, MD; Marc Auerbach, MD; Isabel A. Barata, MD, FACEP; Lee S. Benjamin, MD, FACEP; Kathleen T. Berg, MD; Cindy Chang, MD; Jessica Chow, MD; Corrie E. Chumpitazi, MD, MS, FACEP; Ilene A. Claudius, MD, FACEP; Joshua Easter, MD; Ashley Foster, MD; Sean M. Fox, MD, FACEP; Marianne Gausche-Hill, MD, FACEP; Michael J. Gerardi, MD, FACEP; Jeffrey M. Goodloe, MD, FACEP; Melanie Heniff, MD, JD, FAAP, FACEP; James (Jim) L. Homme, MD, FACEP; Paul T. Ishimine, MD, FACEP; Susan D. John, MD; Madeline M. Joseph, MD, FACEP; Samuel Hiu-Fung Lam, MD, MPH, RDMS, FACEP; Simone L. Lawson, MD; Moon O. Lee, MD, FACEP; Joyce Li, MD; Sophia D. Lin, MD; Dyllon Ivy Martini, MD; Larry Bruce Mellick, MD, FACEP; Donna Mendez, MD; Emory M. Petrack, MD, FACEP; Lauren Rice, MD; Emily A. Rose, MD, FACEP; Timothy Ruttan, MD, FACEP; Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MBA, FACEP; Genevieve Santillanes, MD, FACEP; Joelle N. Simpson, MD, MPH, FACEP; Shyam M. Sivasankar, MD; Daniel Slubowski, MD; Annalise Sorrentino, MD, FACEP; Michael J. Stoner, MD, FACEP; Carmen D. Sulton, MD, FACEP; Jonathan H. Valente, MD, FACEP; Samreen Vora, MD, FACEP; Jessica J. Wall, MD; Dina Wallin, MD, FACEP; Theresa A. Walls, MD, MPH; Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS; Dale P. Woolridge, MD, PhD, FACEP; Sam Shahid, MBBS, MPH; EMERGENCY NURSES ASSOCIATION Pediatric Committee; Roberta Miller, RN, CPEN, TCRN; Elyssa Wood, PhD, MPH, RN, FAEN; Tasha Lowery, RN, APRN, CEN, CPEN, ENP-C, FNP-C; Julie Cohen, MSN, RN, CPEN, CEN; Rebecca VanStanton, MSN, RN, CEN, CPEN, TCRN; Lisa Hill, DNP, RN, TCRN; Elizabeth Stone, PhD, RN, CPEN, CHSE, FAEN; Domenique Johnson, MSN, RN
Benson Hsu, MD, MBA, FAAP, FCCM; Alexander Bondoc, MD, FAAP; Alex G. Cuenca, MD, PhD; Kristin Hittle Gigli, PhD, RN, CPNP-AC; Naomi Laventhal, MD, MA, HEC-C, FAAP; Thomas Nakagawa, MD, FAAP, FCCM; COMMITTEE ON HOSPITAL CARE; Daniel Rauch, MD, FAAP; Tania Fontánez Nieves, MD, FAAP; Samantha House, DO, FAAP; Charles Vinocur, MD, FAAP; Nicole Webb, MD, FAAP; Benson Hsu, MD, MBA, FAAP; Melissa Mauro-Small, MD, FAAP; Karen Castleberry; Quinn Franklin, PhD, CCLS; Michael Leonard, MD, FAAP; Kristin Hittle Gigli, PhD, RN, CPNP-AC, CCRN; Nancy Hanson; S. Niccole Alexander, MPP; SECTION ON CRITICAL CARE; Benson Hsu, MD, MBA, FAAP, FCCM; Nicholas Ettinger, MD, PhD, CMQ, CPPS, FAAP, FCCM; Steven Loscalzo, MD, FAAP; Lia Lowrie, MD, FAAP; Elizbeth Mack, MD, MS, FAAP, FCCM; Margaret Satchell, MD, FAAP; Linda Siegel, MD, FAAP, FAAHPM; Vijay Srinivasan, MBBS, MD, FAAP; Benson Hsu, MD, MBA, FAAP, FCCM; Elizabeth Mack, MD, MS, FAAP, FCCM; Shilpa Balikai, DO, FAAP; Steven Loscalzo, MD, FAAP; Melanie Kitagawa, MD, MHA, FAAP; Vijay Srinivasan, MBBS, MD, FAAP; Samir Gadepalli, MS, MD, MBA, FAAP; Tessie October, MD, MPH, FAAP; Robert Francis Tamburro, Jr, MD, FAAP; Michael Agus, MD, FAAP; Mark Hall, MD, FCCM; Nicholas Ettinger, MD, PhD, CMQ, CPPS, FAAP, FCCM; Sue Tellez; SECTION ON SURGERY; Cynthia D. Downard, MD, FAAP; Kenneth William Gow, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth Beierle, MD, FAAP; Marybeth Browne, MD, FAAP; Barbara Gaines, MD, FAAP; Saleem Islam, MD, MPH, FAAP; Katherine Flynn-O’Brien, MD, FAAP; Danielle Walsh, MD, FAAP; Regan Frances Williams, MD, FAAP; Vivian Thorne; COMMITTEE ON BIOETHICS; Naomi Tricot Laventhal, MD, FAAP; Gina Marie Geis, MD, MS, FAAP; Deborah Loeff, MD, FAAP; Kelly N. Michelson, MD, MPH, FAAP; Mary A. Ott, MD, MA, FAAP; Nanette Elster, JD, MPH; Douglas S. Diekema, MD, MPH, FAAP; Maria McGee, MD, MPH; Kavita Arora, MD, MBE, MS; Anjie Emanuel, MPH
Sadiqa Kendi, MD, FAAP; Brian D. Johnston, MD, MPH, FAAP; COUNCIL ON INJURY, VIOLENCE, AND POISON PREVENTION; Benjamin Hoffman, MD, FAAP; Phyllis F. Agran, MD, MPH, FAAP; Alison Culyba, MD, MPH, PhD, FAAP; James Dodington, MD, FAAP; Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP; Terri McFadden, MD, FAAP; Kathy Monroe, MD, FAAP; Milton Tenenbein, MD, FAAP; Kyran Quinlan, MD, MPH, FAAP; Suzanne Beno, MD; Cinnamon Dixon, DO, MPH, FAAP; Laura Dunn; Jonathan D. Midgett, PhD; Bethany Miller, MSW, Med; Judith Qualters, PhD; Bonnie Kozial
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