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Technical Reports

Background information to support AAP Policy.
Jennifer R. Marin, MD, MSc, FAAP, FACEP; Todd W. Lyons, MD, MPH, FAAP; Ilene Claudius, MD, FACEP; Mary E. Fallat, MD, FAAP, FACS; Michael Aquino, MD; Timothy Ruttan, MD, FACEP, FAAP; Reza J. Daugherty, MD, FAAP; AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Section on Radiology; Gregory P. Conners, MD, MPH, MBA, FAAP; Sylvia Owusu-Ansah, MD, MPH, FAAP; Kerry S. Caperell, MD, FAAP; Jennifer Hoffmann, MD, FAAP; Benson Hsu, MD, MBA, FAAP; Deborah Hsu, MD, MEd, FAAP; Jennifer E. McCain, MD, FAAP; Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MS, MBA, FAAP; Muhammad Waseem, MBBS, FAAP; Sue Tellez; AMERICAN COLLEGE OF RADIOLOGY; Hansel J. Otero, MD, FAAP; Patricia Trinidad Acharya, MD, FAAP; Adina Lynn Alazraki, MD, FAAP; Ellen Benya, MD, FAAP; Brandon Patrick Brown, MD, MA, FAAP; Laura Laskosz, MPH; AMERICAN COLLEGE OF EMERGENCY PHYSICIANS Pediatric Emergency Medicine Committee; Christopher S. Amato, MD, FACEP; Alexandria Georgadarellis, MD; Ann Marie Dietrich, MD, FACEP; Annalise Sorrentino, MD, FACEP; Ashley Foster, MD, FACEP; Carmen D. Sulton, MD, FACEP; Cindy Chang, MD; Daniel Slubowski, MD; Dina Wallin, MD, FACEP; Donna Mendez, MD; Emily A. Rose, MD, FACEP; Erika Bishop Crawford, MD; Genevieve Santillanes, MD, FACEP; George Hsu, MD; Gwendolyn C. Hooley, MD; Isabel Araujo Barata, MD, FACEP; James L. Homme, MD, FACEP; Jeffrey Michael Goodloe, MD, FACEP; Jessica J. Wall, MD, MPH, MSCE, FACEP; Jonathan Harris Valente, MD, FACEP; Joshua Easter, MD; Joyce Li, MD; Kathleen Brown, MD, FACEP; Kathleen Theresa Berg, MD, FACEP; Kiyetta Hanan Alade, MD, MEd, RDMS; Lauren Rice, MD; Madeline Matar Joseph, MD, FACEP; Marc Auerbach, MD; Marianne Gausche-Hill, MD, FACEP; Melanie Heniff, MD, JD, MHA, FACEP; Michael J. Stoner, MD, FACEP; Michael Joseph Gerardi, MD, FACEP; Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MBA, FACEP; Moon O. Lee, MD, FACEP; Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS, FACEP; Paul T. Ishimine, MD, FACEP; Samuel Hiu-Fung Lam, MD, MPH, FACEP; Sean M. Fox, MD, FAAP, FACEP; Shyam Mohan Sivasankar, MD, FACEP; Simone L. Lawson, MD, Med, FAAP, FACEP, FACEP; Siraj Amanullah, MD, MPH; Sophia D. Lin, MD; Stephen M. Sandelich, MD; Tabitha Autumn Cheng, MD; Theresa Ann Walls, MD, MPH; Zachary Burroughs, MD; Sam Shahid, MBBS, MPH
Richard J. Chung, MD, FSAHM, FAAP; Janet B. Lee, MD, FAAP; Jesse M. Hackell, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth M. Alderman, MD, FSAHM, FAAP; COMMITTEE ON ADOLESCENCE; Elizabeth M. Alderman, MD, FSAHM, FAAP; Elise D. Berlan, MD, MPH, FAAP; Richard J. Chung, MD, FSAHM, FAAP; Michael Colburn, MD, MEd, FAAP; Janet Lee, MD, FAAP; Maria Monge, MD, FAAP; Taraneh Shafii, MD, FAAP; Laura K. Grubb, MD, FAAP; Stephenie B. Wallace, MD, MSPH, FAAP; Anne-Marie Amies, MD; Liwei L. Hua, MD, PhD; Seema Menon, MD; Maria H. Rahmandar, MD, FAAP; Ellie Vyver, MD; Lauren Zapata, PhD, MSPH; Karen S. Smith; James Baumberger, MPP; COMMITTEE ON PRACTICE & AMBULATORY MEDICINE; Jesse Hackell, MD, FAAP; Yvette Marie Almendarez, MD, FAAP; Abeba Mebrahtu Berhane, MD, FAAP; Patricia E. Cantrell, MD, FAAP; Lisa Michele Kafer, MD, FAAP; Tomitra Latimer, MD, FAAP; Robin Warner, MD, FAAP; Robert H. Wiskind, MD, FAAP; Alisa Skatrud; Seth Kaplan, MD, FAAP; Abigail English, JD; Mackenzie Magnus; Elisha Ferguson
Samantha Ahdoot, MD, FAAP; Carl R. Baum, MD, FACMT, FAAP; Mary Bono Cataletto, MD, FAAP, FCCP; Patrick Hogan, MD; Christina B. Wu, MD, MPH, FAAP; Aaron Bernstein, MD, MPH, FAAP; COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE; Aparna Bole, MD, FAAP; Sophie J. Balk, MD, FAAP; Lori G. Byron, MD, FAAP; Gredia Maria Huerta-Montañez, MD, FAAP; Philip J. Landrigan, MD, FAAP; Steven M. Marcus, MD, FAAP; Abby L. Nerlinger, MD, FAAP; Lisa H. Patel, MD, FAAP; Rebecca Philipsborn, MD, FAAP; Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH, FAAP; Lauren Zajac, MD, MHP, FAAP; Kimberly A. Gray, PhD; Jeanne Briskin; Nathaniel G. DeNicola, MD, MSc; Matt Karwowski, MD, MPH, FAAP; Mary H. Ward, PhD; Paul Spire; COUNCIL ON CHILDREN AND DISASTERS; Steven E. Krug, MD, FAAP; Sarita Chung, MD, FAAP; Carl R. Baum, MD, FACMT, FAAP; Deanna L. Dahl-Grove, MD, FAAP; H. Dele Davies, MD, MS, MHCM, FAAP; Eric J. Dziuban, MD, DTM, CPH, FAAP; Aaron H. Gardner, MD, MS, FAAP; Stephanie E. Griese, MD, MPH, FAAP; Scott M. Needle, MD, FAAP; David J. Schonfeld, MD, FAAP; Joelle N. Simpson, MD, MPH, FAAP; Stephanie Smiley, MA; SECTION ON PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY AND SLEEP MEDICINE; Richard M. Kravitz, MD, FAAP; Rajeev Bhatia, MD, FAAP; Theresa W. Guilbert, MD, FAAP; Brooke Gustafson, MD, FAAP; Binal Kancherla, MD, FAAP; Benjamin Kopp, MD, FAAP; Susan L. Millard, MD, FAAP, FCCP; Rebekah J. Nevel, MD, FAAP; Andrew G. Sokolow, MD, FAAP; Kristin Van Hook, MD, FAAP; Laura N. Laskosz, MPH; SECTION ON MINORITY HEALTH, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION; Nia Heard Garris, MD, MSc, FAAP; Kimberly Brown, MD, FAAP; Nathan Chomilo, MD, FAAP; Nathaniel Jones, MD; Patricia Rodriguez, MD, FAAP; Valencia Walker, MD, FAAP; Ngozi Onyema-Melton
Aparna Bole, MD, FAAP; Aaron Bernstein, MD, MPH, FAAP; Michelle J. White, MD, MPH, FAAP; COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE; Aparna Bole, MD, FAAP; Sophie J. Balk, MD, FAAP; Lori G. Byron, MD, FAAP; Gredia Maria Huerta-Montañez, MD, FAAP; Philip J. Landrigan, MD, FAAP; Steven M. Marcus, MD, FAAP; Abby L. Nerlinger, MD, FAAP; Lisa H. Patel, MD, FAAP; Rebecca Philipsborn, MD, FAAP; Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH, FAAP; Lauren Zajac, MD, MHP, FAAP; Kimberly A. Gray, PhD; Jeanne Briskin; Nathaniel G. DeNicola, MD, MSc; Matt Karwowski, MD, MPH, FAAP; Mary H. Ward, PhD; Paul Spire; SECTION ON MINORITY HEALTH, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION; Nia Heard Garris, MD, MSc, FAAP; Kimberly Brown, MD, FAAP; Nathan Chomilo, MD, FAAP; Nathaniel Jones, MD; Patricia Rodriguez, MD, FAAP; Valencia Walker, MD, FAAP; Ngozi Onyema-Melton
Sophie J. Balk, MD, FAAP; Risa E. Bochner, MD, FAAP; Mahindra A. Ramdhanie, AuD, FAAA, CCC-A; Brian K. Reilly, MD, FAAP, FACS; COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE; Aparna Bole, MD, FAAP; Sophie J. Balk, MD, FAAP; Lori G. Byron, MD, FAAP; Gredia Maria Huerta-Montañez, MD, FAAP; Steven M. Marcus, MD, FAAP; Abby L. Nerlinger, MD, FAAP; Nicholas C. Newman, DO, FAAP; Lisa H. Patel, MD, FAAP; Rebecca Philipsborn, MD, FAAP; Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH, FAAP; Lauren Zajac, MD, MHP, FAAP; Aaron Bernstein, MD, MPH, FAAP; Philip J. Landrigan, MD, FAAP; Jeanne Briskin; Nathaniel G. DeNicola, MD, MSc; Kimberly A. Gray, PhD; Matt Karwowski, MD, MPH, FAAP; Mary H. Ward, PhD; Paul Spire; SECTION ON OTOLARYNGOLOGY–HEAD AND NECK SURGERY; Steven E. Sobol, MD, FAAP; Kristina W. Rosbe, MD, FAAP; Cristina Marie Baldassari, MD, FAAP; G. Paul DiGoy, MD, FAAP; Kris R. Jatana, MD, FAAP; Anna Katrine Meyer, MD, FAAP; Peggy Elaine Kelley, MD, FAAP; Eileen Margolies Raynor, MD, FAAP; Brian Kip Reilly, MD, FAAP; Jeffrey Philip Simons, MD, FAAP; Vivian B. Thorne
COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES; Sean T. O’Leary, MD, MPH, FAAP; James D. Campbell, MD, MS, FAAP; Monica I. Ardura, DO, MSCS, FAAP; Ritu Banerjee, MD, PhD, FAAP; Kristina A. Bryant, MD, FAAP; Mary T. Caserta, MD, FAAP; Robert W. Frenck, Jr, MD, FAAP; Jeffrey S. Gerber, MD, PhD, FAAP; Chandy C. John, MD, MS, FAAP; Athena P. Kourtis, MD, PhD, MPH, FAAP; Angela Myers, MD, MPH, FAAP; Pia Pannaraj, MD, MPH, FAAP; Adam J. Ratner, MD, MPH, FAAP; Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE, FAAP; Kristina A. Bryant, MD, FAAP; Annika M. Hofstetter, MD, PhD, MPH, FAAP; Juan D. Chaparro, MD, MS, FAAP; Jeremy J. Michel, MD, MHS, FAAP; David W. Kimberlin, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth D. Barnett, MD, FAAP; Ruth Lynfield, MD, FAAP; Mark H. Sawyer, MD, FAAP; Henry H. Bernstein, DO, MHCM, FAAP; Cristina V. Cardemil, MD, MPH, FAAP; Karen M. Farizo, MD; Lisa M. Kafer, MD, FAAP; David Kim, MD, MA; Eduardo López Medina, MD, MSc; Denee Moore, MD, FAAFP; Lakshmi Panagiotakopoulos, MD, MPH; José R. Romero, MD, FAAP; Laura Sauvé, MD, MPH, FAAP, FRCPS; Jeffrey R. Starke, MD, FAAP; Jennifer Thompson, MD; Melinda Wharton, MD, MPH; Charles R. Woods, Jr, MD, MS, FAAP; Jennifer M. Frantz, MPH; Gillian Gibbs, MPH
Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MS, MBA, FAAP, FACEP; Susan Duffy, MD, MPH, FAAP; Dina Wallin, MD; Jennifer A. Hoffmann, MD, FAAP; Madeline M. Joseph, MD, FAAP, FACEP; Jennifer Schieferle Uhlenbrock, DNP, MBA, RN, TCRN; Kathleen Brown, MD, FAAP; Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS, FAAP, FACEP, CHSE-A; Sally Snow, BSN, RN, CPEN, FAEN; Madeline Andrew, MD; Alice A. Kuo, MD, PhD, MBA, FAAP; Carmen Sulton, MD, FAAP; Thomas Chun, MD, MPH, FAAP; Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP, FACEP; AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; Gregory P. Conners, MD, MPH, MBA, FAAP, FACEP; James Callahan, MD, FAAP; Toni Gross, MD, MPH, FAAP; Madeline M. Joseph, MD, FAAP, FACEP; Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP, FACEP; Elizabeth Mack, MD, MS, FAAP; Jennifer Marin, MD, MSc, FAAP; Suzan Mazor, MD, FAAP; Ronald Paul, MD, FAAP; Nathan Timm, MD, FAAP; Mark Cicero, MD, FAAP; Ann Dietrich, MD, FACEP; Andrew Eisenberg, MD, MHA; Mary Fallat, MD, FAAP; Sue Tellez; AMERICAN COLLEGE OF EMERGENCY PHYSICIANS Pediatric Emergency Medicine Committee; Ann M. Dietrich, MD; Kiyetta H. Alade, MD; Christopher S. Amato, MD; Zaza Atanelov, MD; Marc Auerbach, MD; Isabel A. Barata, MD, FACEP; Lee S. Benjamin, MD, FACEP; Kathleen T. Berg, MD; Kathleen Brown, MD, FACEP; Cindy Chang, MD; Jessica Chow, MD; Corrie E. Chumpitazi, MD, MS, FACEP; Ilene A. Claudius, MD, FACEP; Joshua Easter, MD; Ashley Foster, MD; Sean M. Fox, MD, FACEP; Marianne Gausche-Hill, MD, FACEP; Michael J. Gerardi, MD, FACEP; Jeffrey M. Goodloe, MD, FACEP; Melanie Heniff, MD, JD, FAAP, FACEP; James (Jim) L. Homme, MD, FACEP; Paul T. Ishimine, MD, FACEP; Susan D. John, MD; Madeline M. Joseph, MD, FACEP; Samuel Hiu-Fung Lam, MD, MPH, RDMS, FACEP; Simone L. Lawson, MD; Moon O. Lee, MD, FACEP; Joyce Li, MD; Sophia D. Lin, MD; Dyllon Ivy Martini, MD; Larry Bruce Mellick, MD, FACEP; Donna Mendez, MD; Emory M. Petrack, MD, FACEP; Lauren Rice, MD; Emily A. Rose, MD, FACEP; Timothy Ruttan, MD, FACEP; Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MBA, FACEP; Genevieve Santillanes, MD, FACEP; Joelle N. Simpson, MD, MPH, FACEP; Shyam M. Sivasankar, MD; Daniel Slubowski, MD; Annalise Sorrentino, MD, FACEP; Michael J. Stoner, MD, FACEP; Carmen D. Sulton, MD, FACEP; Jonathan H. Valente, MD, FACEP; Samreen Vora, MD, FACEP; Jessica J. Wall, MD; Dina Wallin, MD, FACEP; Theresa A. Walls, MD, MPH; Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS; Dale P. Woolridge, MD, PhD, FACEP; Sam Shahid, MBBS, MPH; EMERGENCY NURSES ASSOCIATION Pediatric Committee; Roberta Miller, RN, CPEN, TCRN; Elyssa Wood, PhD, MPH, RN, FAEN; Tasha Lowery, RN, APRN, CEN, CPEN, ENP-C, FNP-C; Julie Cohen, MSN, RN, CPEN, CEN; Rebecca VanStanton, MSN, RN, CEN, CPEN, TCRN; Lisa Hill, DNP, RN, TCRN; Elizabeth Stone, PhD, RN, CPEN, CHSE, FAEN; Domenique Johnson, MSN, RN
Mary T. Caserta, MD, FAAP; Sean T. O’Leary, MD, MPH, FAAP; Flor M. Munoz, MD, MSc, FAAP; Shawn L. Ralston, MD, FAAP; COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES; Sean T. O’Leary, MD, MPH, FAAP; James D. Campbell, MD, MS, FAAP; Monica I. Ardura, DO, MSCS, FAAP; Ritu Banerjee, MD, PhD, FAAP; Kristina A. Bryant, MD, FAAP; Mary T. Caserta, MD, FAAP; Jeffrey S. Gerber, MD, PhD, FAAP; Chandy C. John, MD, MS, FAAP; Athena P. Kourtis, MD, PhD, MPH, FAAP; Angela Myers, MD, MPH, FAAP; Pia Pannaraj, MD, MPH, FAAP; Adam J. Ratner, MD, MPH, FAAP; José R. Romero, MD, FAAP; Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE, FAAP; Kenneth M. Zangwill, MD, FAAP; Yvonne A. Maldonado, MD, FAAP; Flor M. Munoz, MD, MSc, FAAP; Shawn L. Ralston, MD, FAAP; David W. Kimberlin, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth D. Barnett, MD, FAAP; Ruth Lynfield, MD, FAAP; Mark H. Sawyer, MD, FAAP; Henry H. Bernstein, DO, MHCM, FAAP; Karen M. Farizo, MD; Lisa M. Kafer, MD, FAAP; David Kim, MD; Eduardo López Medina, MD, MSc; Denee Moore, MD, FAAFP; Lakshmi Panagiotakopoulos, MD, MPH; Laura Sauvé, MD, MPH, FAAP, FRCPS; Jeffrey R. Starke, MD, FAAP; Jennifer Thompson, MD; Kay M. Tomashek, MD, MPH, DTM; Melinda Wharton, MD, MPH; Charles R. Woods, Jr., MD, MS, FAAP; Jennifer M. Frantz, MPH
Sadiqa Kendi, MD, FAAP; Brian D. Johnston, MD, MPH, FAAP; COUNCIL ON INJURY, VIOLENCE, AND POISON PREVENTION; Benjamin Hoffman, MD, FAAP; Phyllis F. Agran, MD, MPH, FAAP; Alison Culyba, MD, MPH, PhD, FAAP; James Dodington, MD, FAAP; Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP; Terri McFadden, MD, FAAP; Kathy Monroe, MD, FAAP; Milton Tenenbein, MD, FAAP; Kyran Quinlan, MD, MPH, FAAP; Suzanne Beno, MD; Cinnamon Dixon, DO, MPH, FAAP; Laura Dunn; Jonathan D. Midgett, PhD; Bethany Miller, MSW, Med; Judith Qualters, PhD; Bonnie Kozial
Suzan S. Mazor, MD, FAAP; Michelle C. Barrett, PharmD, BCPS, BCPPS; Corinne Shubin, MD, FAAP; Shannon Manzi, PharmD, BCPPS, FPPA; COMMITTEE ON PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE; Gregory P. Conners, MD, MPH, MBA, FAAP, FACEP; James Callahan, MD, FAAP; Toni Gross, MD, MPH, FAAP; Madeline Joseph, MD, FAAP; Lois Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP; Elizabeth Mack, MD, MS, FAAP; Jennifer Marin, MD, MSc, FAAP; Ronald Paul, MD, FAAP; Nathan Timm, MD, FAAP; Mark Cicero, MD, FAAP; Ann Dietrich, MD, FACEP; Andrew Eisenberg, MD, MHA; Mary Fallat, MD, FAAP; Cynthia Wright Johnson, MSN, RN; Cynthiana Lightfoot, BFA, NRP; Charles Macias, MD, MPH, FAAP; Diane Pilkey, RN, MPH; Katherine Remick, MD, FAAP, FEMS; Elizabeth Stone, RN, PhD, RN, CPEN; Javier Gonzalez del Rey, MD, MEd, FAAP; Joseph L. Wright, MD, MPH, FAAP; Sue Tellez
Brian P. Jenssen, MD, FAAP; Susan C. Walley, MD, FAAP; Rachel Boykan, MD, FAAP; Alice Little Caldwell, MD, MPH, IBCLC, FAAP; Deepa Camenga, MD, FAAP; SECTION ON NICOTINE AND TOBACCO PREVENTION AND TREATMENT, COMMITTEE ON SUBSTANCE USE AND PREVENTION; Judith A. Groner, MD, FAAP; Jyothi N. Marbin, MD, FAAP; Bryan Mih, MD, MPH, FAAP; Lily Rabinow, MD; Gregory H. Blake, MD; Karen S. Smith; James D. Baumberger, MPP; SECTION ON NICOTINE AND TOBACCO PREVENTION AND TREATMENT, COMMITTEE ON SUBSTANCE USE AND PREVENTION; Lucien Gonzalez, MD, MS, FAAP; Rita Agarwal, MD, FAAP; Joanna Quigley, MD, FAAP; Kenneth Zoucha, MD, FAAP; Leslie Walker-Harding, MD, FAAP; Christine Kurien, DO; Rebecca Ba’Gah, MD, FAAP; Renee Jarrett, MPH
Toni K. Gross, MD, MPH, FAAP; Natalie E. Lane, MD, FAAP; Nathan L. Timm, MD, FAAP; COMMITTEE ON PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE; Gregory P. Conners, MD, MPH, MBA, FAAP; Jennifer Hoffmann, MD, FAAP; Benson Hsu, MD, MBA, FAAP; Lois Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP; Jennifer Marin, MD, MSc, FAAP; Suzan Mazor, MD, FAAP; Ronald Paul, MD, FAAP; Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MS, MBA, FAAP; Muhammad Waseem, MBBS, FAAP; Mark Cicero, MD, FAAP; Paul Ishimine, MD, FACEP, FAAP; Andrew Eisenberg, MD, MHA; Mary Fallat, MD, FAAP; Patricia Fanflik, PhD, MFT, MS; Cynthia Wright Johnson, MSN, RN; Sara Kinsman, MD, PhD, FAAP; Cynthiana Lightfoot, BFA, NRP; Charles Macias, MD, MPH, FAAP; Katherine Remick, MD, FAAP; Sam Shahid, MBBS, MPH; Elizabeth Stone, RN, PhD, CPEN; Joseph Wright, MD, MPH, FAAP; James Callahan, MD, FAAP; Javier Gonzalez del Rey, MD, MEd, FAAP; Madeline Joseph, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth Mack, MD, MS, FAAP; Ann Dietrich, MD, FACEP; Brian Moore, MD, FAAP; Diane Pilkey, RN, MPH; Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MBA, FAAP, FACEP; Sally Snow, RN, BSN, CPEN, FAEN; Sue Tellez
Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH, FAAP; Bryan D. Stierman, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth D. Barnett, MD, FAAP; Lori G. Byron, MD, FAAP; COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE; Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH, FAAP; Bryan D. Stierman, MD, FAAP; Elizabeth D. Barnett, MD, FAAP; Lori G. Byron, MD; Aparna Bole, MD; Sophie J. Balk, MD, FAAP; Gredia Maria Huerta-Montañez, MD, FAAP; Philip J. Landrigan, MD, FAAP; Steven M. Marcus, MD, FAAP; Abby L. Nerlinger, MD, FAAP; Lisa H. Patel, MD, FAAP; Rebecca Philipsborn, MD, FAAP; Lauren Zajac, MD, MHP, FAAP; Kimberly A. Gray, PhD; Jeanne Briskin; Nathaniel G. DeNicola, MD, MSc; CDR Matt Karwowski, MD, MPH, FAAP; Aaron Briggs, MD; Mary H. Ward, PhD; COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES; Yvonne A. Maldonado, MD; Sean T. O’Leary, MD, MPH, FAAP; Monica I. Ardura, DO, MSCS, FAAP; Ritu Banerjee, MD, PhD, FAAP; Kristina A Bryant, MD, FAAP; James D. Campbell, MD, MS, FAAP; Mary T. Caserta, MD, FAAP; Chandy C. John, MD, MS, FAAP; Jeffrey S. Gerber, MD, PhD, FAAP; Athena P. Kourtis, MD, PhD, MPH, FAAP; Adam J. Ratner, MD, MPH, FAAP; José R. Romero, MD, FAAP; Samir S. Shah, MD, MSCE, FAAP; Kenneth M. Zangwill, MD, FAAP; David W. Kimberlin, MD, FAAP; Ruth Lynfield, MD, FAAP; Mark H. Sawyer, MD, FAAP; Henry H. Bernstein, DO, MHCM, FAAP; Karen M. Farizo, MD; Lisa M. Kafer, MD, FAAP; David Kim, MD; Eduardo López Medina, MD, MSc; Denee Moore, MD, FAAFP; Lakshmi Panagiotakopoulos, MD, MPH, FAAP; Laura Sauvé, MD, MPH, FRCPS; Neil S. Silverman, MD; Jeffrey R. Starke, MD, FAAP; Kay M. Tomashek, MD, MPH, DTM; Melinda Wharton, MD, MPH; Jennifer M. Frantz, MPH
Asheley C. Skinner, PhD; Amanda E. Staiano, PhD, MPP; Sarah C. Armstrong, MD, FAAP; Shari L. Barkin, MD, MSHS; Sandra G. Hassink, MD, FAAP; Jennifer E. Moore, PhD, RN, FAAN; Jennifer S. Savage, PhD; Helene Vilme, DrPH; Ashley E. Weedn, MD, MPH, FAAP; Janice Liebhart, MS; Jeanne Lindros, MPH; Eileen M. Reilly, MSW
Asheley C. Skinner, PhD; Amanda E. Staiano, PhD, MPP; Sarah C. Armstrong, MD, FAAP; Shari L. Barkin, MD, MSHS; Sandra G. Hassink, MD, FAAP; Jennifer E. Moore, PhD, RN, FAAN; Jennifer S. Savage, PhD; Helene Vilme, DrPH; Ashley E. Weedn, MD, MPH, FAAP; Janice Liebhart, MS; Jeanne Lindros, MPH; Eileen M. Reilly, MSW
Susan R. Rose, MD, FAAP; Ari J. Wassner, MD; Kupper A. Wintergerst, MD, FAAP; Nana-Hawa Yayah-Jones, MD; Robert J. Hopkin, MD, FAAP; Janet Chuang, MD; Jessica R. Smith, MD; Katherine Abell, MD; Stephen H. LaFranchi, MD, FAAP; SECTION ON ENDOCRINOLOGY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE; Kupper A. Wintergerst, MD, FAAP; Kathleen E. Bethin, MD, FAAP; Jill L. Brodsky, MD, FAAP; David H. Jelley, MD, FAAP; Bess A. Marshall, MD, FAAP; Lucy D. Mastrandrea, MD, PhD, FAAP; Jane L. Lynch, MD, FAAP; Laura Laskosz, MPH; COUNCIL ON GENETICS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE; Leah W. Burke, MD, MA, FAAP; Timothy A. Geleske, MD, FAAP; Ingrid A. Holm, MD, FAAP; Wendy J. Introne, MD, FAAP; Kelly Jones, MD, FAAP; Michael J. Lyons, MD, FAAP; Danielle C. Monteil, MD, FAAP; Amanda B. Pritchard, MD, FAAP; Pamela Lyn Smith Trapane, MD, FAAP; Samantha A. Vergano, MD, FAAP; Kathryn Weaver, MD, FAAP; Aimee A. Alexander, MS, CGC; Christopher Cunniff, MD, FAP; Mary E. Null, MD; Melissa A. Parisi, MD, PhD, FAAP; Steven J Ralson, MD; Joan Scott, MS, CGC; Paul Spire
Dan L. Stewart, MD, FAAP; Yasser Elsayed, MD, FRCPC; María V. Fraga, MD; Brian D. Coley, MD, FAAP, FACR; Aparna Annam, DO, FAAP; Sarah Sarvis Milla, MD, FAAP; THE COMMITTEE ON FETUS AND NEWBORN AND SECTION ON RADIOLOGY; Eric Eichenwald, MD; Charleta Guillory, MD; Ivan Hand, MD; Mark Hudak, MD; David Kaufman, MD; Camilia Martin, MD; Ashley Lucke, MD; Margaret Parker, MD; Arun Pramanik, MD; Kelly Wade, MD; Timothy Jancelewicz, MD; Michael Narvey, MD; Russell Miller, MD; RADM Wanda Barfield, MD, MPH; Lisa Grisham, APRN, NNP-BC; Jim Couto, MA; Section on Radiology Executive Committee, 2021–2022; Hansel J. Otero, MD, FAAP, Chairperson; Patricia Trinidad Acharya, MD; Adina Lynn Alazraki, MD, FAAP; Ellen Benya, MD, FAAP; Brandon P. Brown, MD MA, FAAP; Reza James Daugherty, MD, FAAP; Edward Richer, MD, FAAP; Laura Laskosz, MPH
Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH, FAAP; Eric W. Fleegler, MD, MPH, FAAP; Monika K. Goyal, MD, MSCE, FAAP; Kiesha Fraser Doh, MD, FAAP; Danielle Laraque-Arena, MD, FAAP; Benjamin D. Hoffman, MD, FAAP; THE COUNCIL ON INJURY, VIOLENCE, AND POISON PREVENTION
Madeline M. Joseph, MD, FAAP, FACEP; Prashant Mahajan, MD, MPH, MBA; Sally K. Snow, BSN, RN, CPEN, FAEN; Brandon C. Ku, MD; Mohsen Saidinejad, MD, MS, MBA; COMMITTEE ON PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, the AMERICAN COLLEGE OF EMERGENCY PHYSICIANS PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE COMMITTEE, and the EMERGENCY NURSES ASSOCIATION PEDIATRIC COMMITTEE
Charles A. Jennissen, MD, FAAP; Gerene M. Denning, PhD; Mary E. Aitken, MD, MPH, FAAP; THE COUNCIL ON INJURY, VIOLENCE, AND POISON PREVENTION
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