Many mothers are inappropriately advised to discontinue breastfeeding or avoid taking essential medications because of fears of adverse effects on their infants. This cautious approach may be unnecessary in many cases, because only a small proportion of medications are contraindicated in breastfeeding mothers or associated with adverse effects on their infants. Information to inform physicians about the extent of excretion for a particular drug into human milk is needed but may not be available. Previous statements on this topic from the American Academy of Pediatrics provided physicians with data concerning the known excretion of specific medications into breast milk. More current and comprehensive information is now available on the Internet, as well as an application for mobile devices, at LactMed ( http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov ). Therefore, with the exception of radioactive compounds requiring temporary cessation of breastfeeding, the reader will be referred to LactMed to obtain the most current data on an individual medication. This report discusses several topics of interest surrounding lactation, such as the use of psychotropic therapies, drugs to treat substance abuse, narcotics, galactagogues, and herbal products, as well as immunization of breastfeeding women. A discussion regarding the global implications of maternal medications and lactation in the developing world is beyond the scope of this report. The World Health Organization offers several programs and resources that address the importance of breastfeeding (see http://www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/ ).
OBJECTIVE. The goal was to review the impact of pediatric drug studies, as measured by the improvement in pediatric dosing and other pertinent information captured in the drug labeling. METHODS. We reviewed the pediatric studies for 108 products submitted (July 1998 through October 2005) in response to a Food and Drug Administration written request for pediatric studies, and the subsequent labeling changes. We analyzed the dosing modifications and focused on drug clearance as an important parameter influencing pediatric dosing. RESULTS. The first 108 drugs with new or revised pediatric labeling changes had dosing changes or pharmacokinetic information (n = 23), new safety information (n = 34), information concerning lack of efficacy (n = 19), new pediatric formulations (n = 12), and extended age limits (n = 77). A product might have had ≥1 labeling change. We selected specific examples (n = 16) that illustrate significant differences in pediatric pharmacokinetics. CONCLUSIONS. Critical changes in drug labeling for pediatric patients illustrate that unique pediatric dosing often is necessary, reflecting growth and maturational stages of pediatric patients. These changes provide evidence that pediatric dosing should not be determined by simply applying weight-based calculations to the adult dose. Drug clearance is highly variable in the pediatric population and is not readily predictable on the basis of adult information.
The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA; Pub L 107-109) was enacted in January 2002 and will sunset in October 2007. The BPCA established processes for studying off-patent and on-patent drugs that are used in pediatric population. Although some drugs have been successfully developed for the neonate (eg, surfactant, nitric oxide), drug development for the youngest, least mature, and most vulnerable pediatric patients is generally lacking. Most drugs are empirically administered to newborns once efficacy has been demonstrated in adults and usefulness is suspected or demonstrated in the older pediatric population. Unfortunately, this process undermines the ability to perform the appropriate studies necessary to demonstrate a drug's short- and long-term safety and efficacy and establish appropriate dosing in neonates. The Newborn Drug Development Initiative Workshop I (held March 29–30, 2004) specifically addressed scientific, clinical, and ethical concerns in the development of trials of pediatric therapeutic agents for neonates. Implementation of the BPCA for all pediatric populations will foster collaboration among federal agencies and academic institutions on scientific investigation, clinical-study design, and consideration of the weight of evidence and address ethical issues related to the performance of drug studies.
Objective. Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. Methods. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. Results. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched television, parents reported that they spent an average of 2.6 hours per day watching television. Limitation of television violence was associated with female parents and younger children. Conclusions. There was variability in attitudes and practices regarding television violence viewing and monitoring among parents. Attitudes and practices varied on the basis of the age of the child and the gender of the parent.
Objective. Toy gun play has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people’s perceptions and intended behavior. Few normative data exist on this issue from a cross-section of families. By establishing behavioral norms and understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive and community-specific interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess community norms on the topic of toy gun play from the perspective of parents. Methods. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children’s hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child rearing attitudes, practice, and sociodemographic information. Results. A total of 1004 eligible participants were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate 92%). The 830 (90%) respondents who were parents and had complete child data were the focus of additional analysis. Regarding toy guns, 67% of parents believed that it was never “OK for a child to play with toy guns,” and 66% stated that they never let their children play with toy guns. Parents who thought that it was okay for children to play with toy guns and allowed them to play with toy guns were more likely to be male parents, have male children, and be white. Conclusions. There is variability in norms regarding toy gun play among parents, with most discouraging toy gun play. Norms varied based on gender of the child, gender of the parent, and race. Understanding norms is a first step in designing effective community-sensitive interventions.