BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Sudden unexpected infant death often results from unsafe sleep environments and is the leading cause of postneonatal mortality in the United States. Standardization of infant sleep environment education has been revealed to impact such deaths. This standardized approach is similar to safety prevention bundles typically used to monitor and improve health outcomes, such as those related to hospital-acquired conditions (HACs). We sought to use the HAC model to measure and improve adherence to safe sleep guidelines in an entire children’s hospital. METHODS A hospital-wide safe sleep bundle was implemented on September 15, 2017. A safe sleep performance improvement team met monthly to review data and discuss ideas for improvement through the use of iterative plan-do-study-act cycles. Audits were performed monthly from March 2017 to October 2019 and monitored safe sleep parameters. Adherence was measured and reviewed through the use of statistical process control charts (p-charts). RESULTS Overall compliance improved from 9% to 72%. Head of bed flat increased from 62% to 93%, sleep space free of extra items increased from 52% to 81%, and caregiver education completed increased from 10% to 84%. The centerline for infant in supine position remained stable at 81%. CONCLUSIONS Using an HAC bundle safety prevention model to improve adherence to infant safe sleep guidelines is a feasible and effective method to improve the sleep environment for infants in all areas of a children’s hospital.
OBJECTIVE: Clinicians expect newborns to surpass birth weight by age 10 to 14 days, yet few studies have examined the natural history of weight change in the weeks after birth. We sought to determine the distribution of weight loss and subsequent regain during the first month, the proportion not surpassing birth weight by 14 and 21 days, and whether findings differed by delivery mode. METHODS: For 161 471 singleton neonates delivered at ≥36 weeks’ gestation at Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Centers between 2009 and 2013 and weighing 2000 to 5000 g at birth, we extracted daily weights from inpatient electronic records and weights from outpatient visits in the first month. Quantile regression appropriate for repeated measures was used to estimate percentiles of weight change as a function of time after birth, stratified by delivery mode. RESULTS: After exclusions, weight data were analyzed from 143 889 newborns (76% born vaginally). Based on percentile estimates, 50% of newborns were at or above birth weight at 9 and 10 days after vaginal and cesarean delivery, respectively. Among those delivered vaginally, 14% and 5% were not back to birth weight by 14 and 21 days, respectively. For those delivered by cesarean, 24% and 8% were not back to birth weight by 14 and 21 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is not uncommon for newborns to be below birth weight 10 to 14 days after delivery. A larger percentage of newborns delivered by cesarean had yet to regain birth weight at every time point through 1 month.