10.1542/6138651190001 Video Abstract PEDS-VA_2019-1286 6138651190001 OBJECTIVES: To examine prevalence of safe infant sleep practices and variation by sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care characteristics, including provider advice. METHODS: Using 2016 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data from 29 states, we examined maternal report of 4 safe sleep practices indicating how their infant usually slept: (1) back sleep position, (2) separate approved sleep surface, (3) room-sharing without bed-sharing, and (4) no soft objects or loose bedding as well as receipt of health care provider advice corresponding to each sleep practice. RESULTS: Most mothers reported usually placing their infants to sleep on their backs (78.0%), followed by room-sharing without bed-sharing (57.1%). Fewer reported avoiding soft bedding (42.4%) and using a separate approved sleep surface (31.8%). Reported receipt of provider advice ranged from 48.8% (room-sharing without bed-sharing) to 92.6% (back sleep position). Differences by sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care characteristics were larger for safe sleep practices (∼10–20 percentage points) than receipt of advice (∼5–10 percentage points). Receipt of provider advice was associated with increased use of safe sleep practices, ranging from 12% for room-sharing without bed-sharing (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.09–1.16) to 28% for back sleep position (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval: 1.21–1.35). State-level differences in safe sleep practices spanned 20 to 25 percentage points and did not change substantially after adjustment for available characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Safe infant sleep practices, especially those other than back sleep position, are suboptimal, with demographic and state-level differences indicating improvement opportunities. Receipt of provider advice is an important modifiable factor to improve infant sleep practices.
10.1542/6138649551001 Video Abstract PEDS-VA_2018-1609 6138649551001 OBJECTIVES: With this study, we explore communication about consistent and correct condom use among African American and Latino male adolescents ages 15 to 19 and their fathers. METHODS: Twenty-five father-son dyads completed semistructured interviews designed to elicit specific preferences for teaching and learning about consistent and correct condom use and strategies for addressing common condom use errors and problems. For analysis, we used in vivo coding and vertical and horizontal analysis techniques. RESULTS: Fathers and sons agreed that communication about condom use is feasible and acceptable. However, fathers tended to convey vague messages regarding protecting oneself from the negative consequences of sexual activity. Furthermore, both fathers and sons reported barriers hindering conversations. Secondly, the style and frequency of condom use conversations can help overcome barriers and support father-son relationship management. Talking frequently in 1-on-1 settings and using strategies to reduce discomfort made communication easier. Lastly, fathers and sons reported distinct preferences for teaching and learning about condom use. Sons wanted fathers to give specific guidance on the use and management of condoms. Fathers expressed interest in opportunities for improving their own condom knowledge and skills. Fathers identified gaps in their own condom use knowledge as a limitation to effective instruction of their sons. CONCLUSIONS: A father-focused communication intervention about condom use is feasible and acceptable. Enhancing the intergenerational benefits of father-son communication by addressing specific father-son preferences and learning needs for condom use instruction, as well as communication barriers, represents a novel mechanism for reducing male sexual reproductive health disparities.
Rates of sexual activity, pregnancies, and births among adolescents have continued to decline during the past decade to historic lows. Despite these positive trends, many adolescents remain at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This policy statement has been developed to assist the pediatrician in understanding and supporting the use of condoms by their patients to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs and address barriers to their use. When used consistently and correctly, male latex condoms reduce the risk of pregnancy and many STIs, including HIV. Since the last policy statement published 12 years ago, there is an increased evidence base supporting the protection provided by condoms against STIs. Rates of acquisition of STIs/HIV among adolescents remain unacceptably high. Interventions that increase availability or accessibility to condoms are most efficacious when combined with additional individual, small-group, or community-level activities that include messages about safer sex. Continued research is needed to inform public health interventions for adolescents that increase the consistent and correct use of condoms and promote dual protection of condoms for STI prevention with other effective methods of contraception.