10.1542/6270193783001 Video Abstract PEDS-VA_2020-037010 6270193783001 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Treatment of retropharyngeal abscesses (RPAs) and parapharyngeal abscesses (PPAs) includes antibiotics, with possible surgical drainage. Although corticosteroids may decrease inflammation, their role in the management of RPAs and PPAs is unclear. We evaluated the association of corticosteroid administration as part of initial medical management on drainage rates and length of stay for children admitted with RPAs and PPAs. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study using administrative data of children aged 2 months to 8 years discharged with RPAs and PPAs from 2016 to 2019. Exposure was defined as systemic corticosteroids administered as part of initial management. Primary outcome was surgical drainage. Bivariate comparisons were made between patients in the corticosteroid and noncorticosteroid groups by using Wilcoxon rank or χ2 tests. Outcomes were modeled by using generalized linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS Of the 2259 patients with RPAs and PPAs, 1677 (74.2%) were in the noncorticosteroid group and 582 (25.8%) were in the corticosteroid group. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or insurance status. There was a lower rate of drainage in the corticosteroid cohort (odds ratio: 0.28; confidence interval: 0.22–0.36). Patients in this group were more likely to have repeat computed tomography imaging performed, had lower hospital costs, and were less likely to have opioid medications administered. The corticosteroid cohort had a higher 7-day emergency department revisit rate, but there was no difference in length of stay (rate ratio 0.97; confidence interval: 0.92–1.02). CONCLUSIONS Corticosteroids were associated with lower odds of surgical drainage among children with RPAs and PPAs.