OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentration in pregnancy is associated with neuropsychological development in infants. METHODS: The Spanish population-based cohort study INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project recruited pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy between November 2003 and February 2008. Completed data on 1820 mother-infant pairs were used. Maternal plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in pregnancy (mean 13.5±2.1 weeks of gestation). Offspring mental and psychomotor scores were assessed by trained psychologists at age 14 months (range, 11–23) by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. β-Coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mental and psychomotor scores associated with continuous or categorical concentrations of maternal plasma 25(OH)D3 were calculated by using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The median plasma value of 25(OH)D3 in pregnancy was 29.6 ng/mL (interquartile range, 21.8–37.3). A positive linear relationship was found between circulating concentrations of maternal 25(OH)D3 concentrations in pregnancy and mental and psychomotor scores in the offspring. After adjustment for potential confounders, infants of mothers with 25(OH)D3 concentrations in pregnancy >30 ng/mL showed higher mental score (β = 2.60; 95% CI 0.63–4.56) and higher psychomotor score (β = 2.32; 95% CI 0.36–4.28) in comparison with those of mothers with 25(OH)D3 concentrations <20 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating concentration of maternal 25(OH)D3 in pregnancy was associated with improved mental and psychomotor development in infants.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible association between birth size and cord concentrations of some organochlorine compounds (OCs), including 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), 4,4′-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-dichlorodiphenyl)ethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), 4 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), and their sum (ΣPCBs) in a birth cohort in Valencia, Spain. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 494 mothers and their newborns (born 2003–2006) participated in the study. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed between birth weight, length, or head circumference and OC concentrations. RESULTS: Median concentrations of 4,4′-DDT, 4,4′-DDE, HCB, β-HCH, and ΣPCBs were 0.02, 0.46, 0.22, 0.09, and 0.35 ng/mL, respectively. For birth weight there was a significant decrease of 63 and 107 g for each 10-fold increase in cord serum 4,4′-DDT and 4,4′-DDE concentrations, and a marginally significant decrease of 79 and 53 g for each 10-fold increase in HCB and β-HCH concentrations. A significant decrease of 0.39 cm in birth length was found for each 10-fold increase in HCB concentrations. For newborns with cord 4,4′-DDT concentrations above the median there was a significant decrease of 0.26 cm in birth head circumference. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that prenatal exposure to some OCs could impair the anthropometric development of the fetus, reducing the birth weight, length, and head circumference.