10.1542/6227394031001 Video Abstract PEDS-VA_2020-027128 6227394031001 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exposure to airborne fine particles with diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) pollution is a well-established cause of respiratory diseases in children; whether wildfire-specific PM2.5 causes more damage, however, remains uncertain. We examine the associations between wildfire-specific PM2.5 and pediatric respiratory health during the period 2011–2017 in San Diego County, California, and compare these results with other sources of PM2.5. METHODS: Visits to emergency and urgent care facilities of Rady’s Children Hospital network in San Diego County, California, by individuals (aged ≤19 years) with ≥1 of the following respiratory conditions: difficulty breathing, respiratory distress, wheezing, asthma, or cough were regressed on daily, community-level exposure to wildfire-specific PM2.5 and PM2.5 from ambient sources (eg, traffic emissions). RESULTS: A 10-unit increase in PM2.5 (from nonsmoke sources) was estimated to increase the number of admissions by 3.7% (95% confidence interval: 1.2% to 6.1%). In contrast, the effect of PM2.5 attributable to wildfire was estimated to be a 30.0% (95% confidence interval: 26.6% to 33.4%) increase in visits. CONCLUSIONS: Wildfire-specific PM2.5 was found to be ∼10 times more harmful on children’s respiratory health than PM2.5 from other sources, particularly for children aged 0 to 5 years. Even relatively modest wildfires and associated PM2.5 resolved on our record produced major health impacts, particularly for younger children, in comparison with ambient PM2.5.
OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of becoming a daily cigarette smoker over the course of 4 years. METHODS: We identified 12- to 24-year-olds at wave 1 of the US Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study and determined ever use, age at first use, and daily use through wave 4 for 12 tobacco products. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of 12- to 24-year-olds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.1% to 63.2%) tried tobacco, and 30.2% (95% CI: 28.7% to 31.6%) tried ≥5 tobacco products by wave 4. At wave 4, 12% were daily tobacco users, of whom 70% were daily cigarette smokers (95% CI: 67.4% to 73.0%); daily cigarette smoking was 20.8% in 25- to 28-year-olds (95% CI: 18.9% to 22.9%), whereas daily electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) vaping was 3.3% (95% CI: 2.4% to 4.4%). Compared with single product triers, the risk of progressing to daily cigarette smoking was 15 percentage points higher (adjusted risk difference [aRD] 15%; 95% CI: 12% to 18%) among those who tried ≥5 products. In particular, e-cigarette use increased the risk of later daily cigarette smoking by threefold (3% vs 10%; aRD 7%; 95% CI: 6% to 9%). Daily smoking was 6 percentage points lower (aRD −6%; 95% CI: −8% to −4%) for those who experimented after age 18 years. CONCLUSIONS: Trying e-cigarettes and multiple other tobacco products before age 18 years is strongly associated with later daily cigarette smoking. The recent large increase in e-cigarette use will likely reverse the decline in cigarette smoking among US young adults.