OBJECTIVES: In this study, we benchmark outcomes and identify factors associated with tracheostomy placement in infants of very low birth weight (VLBW). METHODS: Data were prospectively collected on infants of VLBW (401–1500 g or gestational age of 22–29 weeks) born between 2006 and 2016 and admitted to 796 North American centers. Length of stay (LOS), mortality, associated surgical procedures, and comorbidities were assessed, and infants who received tracheostomy were compared with those who did not. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify risk factors for tracheostomy placement and for mortality in those receiving tracheostomy. RESULTS: Of 458 624 infants of VLBW studied, 3442 (0.75%) received tracheostomy. Infants with tracheostomy had a median (interquartile range) LOS of 226 (168–304) days and a mortality rate of 18.8%, compared with 58 (39–86) days and 8.3% for infants without tracheostomy. Independent risk factors associated with tracheostomy placement included male sex, birth weight <1001 g, African American non-Hispanic maternal race, chronic lung disease (CLD), intraventricular hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus ligation, and congenital neurologic, cardiac, and chromosomal anomalies. Among infants who received tracheostomy, male sex, birth weight <751 g, CLD, and congenital anomalies were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Infants of VLBW receiving tracheostomy had twice the risk of mortality and nearly 4 times the initial LOS of those without tracheostomy. CLD and congenital anomalies were the strongest predictors of tracheostomy placement and mortality. These benchmark data on tracheostomy in infants of VLBW should guide discussions with patient families and inform future studies and interventions.
OBJECTIVES. Given the demonstrated benefit of euglycemia in critically ill patients as well as the risk for hypoglycemia during insulin infusion in children, we sought to validate a subcutaneous sensor for real-time continuous glucose monitoring in pediatric patients during and after cardiac surgery. METHODS. Children up to 36 months of age who were undergoing cardiac bypass surgery were recruited. After anesthetic induction, a continuous glucose-monitoring system sensor (CGMS, Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA) was inserted subcutaneously. Sensors remained in place for up to 72 hours. Arterial blood glucose was measured intermittently in the central laboratory (Bayer Rapidlab 860, Tarrytown, NY). Sensor data, after prospective calibration with 6-hourly laboratory values using the proprietary Medtronic Minimed Guardian RT algorithm, were compared with all laboratory glucose values. Statistical analysis was performed to test whether sensor performance was affected by body temperature, inotrope dose, or body-wall edema. RESULTS. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study for a total of 40 study days and 246 paired sensor and laboratory glucose values. Consensus error grid analysis demonstrated that 72.0% of sensor value comparisons were within zone A (no effect on clinical action), and 27.6% of comparisons were within zone B (altered clinical action of little or no effect on outcome), with a mean absolute relative deviation of 17.6% for all comparisons. One comparison (0.4%) was in zone C (altered clinical action likely to affect outcome). No significant correlations were found between sensor performance and body temperature, inotrope dose, or body-wall edema. All patients tolerated the sensors well without bleeding or tissue reaction. CONCLUSIONS. Guardian RT real-time subcutaneous blood glucose measurement is safe and potentially useful for continuous glucose monitoring in critically ill children. Subcutaneous sensors performed well in the setting of hypothermia, inotrope use, and edema. These sensors facilitate identifying and following the effects of interventions to control blood glucose.