Objective. Being a victim or a perpetrator of school bullying, the most common type of school violence, has been frequently associated with a broad spectrum of behavioral, emotional, and social problems. In a Korean middle school community sample, this study specifically investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideations and behaviors in victims, perpetrators, and victim-perpetrators of school bullying and compared them with a group of students who were in the same schools and were not involved with bullying. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 1718 seventh- and eighth-grade students in 2 middle schools participated in the study in October 2000. Students completed demographic information, Korean Peer Nomination Inventory, and Korean Youth Self-Report. Results. Compared with the students who were not involved with school bullying, victim-perpetrators reported more suicidal/self-injurious behaviors and suicidal ideation in the previous 6 months (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9 and 1.9, respectively). In female students, all 3 school bullying groups had increased suicidal ideation for the previous 2 weeks (OR: 2.8, 2.0, and 2.8, respectively) but not in male students (OR: 0.9, 1.1, and 1.3, respectively). Conclusions. Students who were involved in school bullying, especially victim-perpetrators and female students, had significantly higher risks for suicide ideation and suicidal behavior when compared with individuals who were not involved in school bullying. In addition to attempting to decrease bullying in a community, students who are involved in school bullying should be the targets for suicide monitoring and prevention programs.
Objective. Prevalence studies indicate a 10-fold higher rate of Tourette syndrome (TS) among children compared with adults. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the course of tic severity during the first 2 decades of life. Method. A birth-year cohort of 42 TS patients followed at the Yale Child Study Center was recontacted an average of 7.3 years after their initial clinical evaluation. Data concerning the onset and course of tic severity until 18 years of age were available on 36 TS patients. A variety of statistical techniques were used to model aspects of the temporal patterning of tic severity. Results. Mean (SD) tic onset at 5.6 (2.3) years of age was followed by a progressive pattern of tic worsening. On average, the most severe period of tic severity occurred at 10.0 (2.4) years of age. In eight cases (22%), the frequency and forcefulness of the tics reached a severe level during the worst-ever period such that functioning in school was impossible or in serious jeopardy. In almost every case this period was followed by a steady decline in tic severity. By 18 years of age nearly half of the cohort was virtually tic-free. The onset of puberty was not associated with either the timing or severity of tics. Conclusions. A majority of TS patients displayed a consistent time course of tic severity. This consistency can be accurately modeled mathematically and may reflect normal neurobiological processes. Determination of the model parameters that describe each patient's course of tic severity may be of prognostic value and assist in the identification of factors that differentially influence the course of tic severity.