CONTEXT There is a lack of research on individual perceptions of social experiences and social relationships among very preterm (VP) adults compared with term-born peers. OBJECTIVE To investigate self-perceived social functioning in adults born VP (<32 weeks’ gestation) and/or with very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1500g) compared with term-born adults (≥37 weeks’ gestation) using an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Two international consortia: Research on European Children and Adults born Preterm and Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration. STUDY SELECTION Cohorts with outcomes assessed by using the Adult Self-Report Adaptive Functioning scales (friends, spouse/partner, family, job, and education) in both groups. DATA EXTRACTION IPD from 5 eligible cohorts were collected. Raw-sum scores for each scale were standardized as z scores by using mean and SD of controls for each cohort. Pooled effect size was measured by difference (Δ) in means between groups. RESULTS One-stage analyses (1285 participants) revealed significantly lower scores for relationships with friends in VP/VLBW adults compared with controls (Δ −0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.61 to −0.13). Differences were similar after adjusting for sex, age, and socioeconomic status (Δ −0.39, 95% CI: −0.63 to −0.15) and after excluding participants with neurosensory impairment (Δ −0.34, 95% CI: −0.61 to −0.07). No significant differences were found in other domains. LIMITATIONS Generalizability of research findings to VP survivors born in recent decades. CONCLUSIONS VP/VLBW adults scored their relationship with friends lower but perceived their family and partner relationships, as well as work and educational experiences, as comparable to those of controls.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether online family problem-solving treatment (OFPST) is more effective in improving behavioral outcomes after pediatric traumatic brain injury with increasing time since injury. METHODS: This was an individual participant data meta-analysis of outcome data from 5 randomized controlled trials of OFPST conducted between 2003 and 2016. We included 359 children ages 5 to 18 years who were hospitalized for moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury 1 to 24 months earlier. Outcomes, assessed pre- and posttreatment, included parent-reported measures of externalizing, internalizing, and executive function behaviors and social competence. RESULTS: Participants included 231 boys and 128 girls with an average age at injury of 13.6 years. Time since injury and age at injury moderated OFPST efficacy. For earlier ages and short time since injury, control participants demonstrated better externalizing problem scores than those receiving OFPST (Cohen’s d = 0.44; P = .008; n = 295), whereas at older ages and longer time since injury, children receiving OFPST had better scores (Cohen’s d = −0.60; P = .002). Children receiving OFPST were rated as having better executive functioning relative to control participants at a later age at injury, with greater effects seen at longer (Cohen’s d = −0.66; P = .009; n = 298) than shorter (Cohen’s d = −0. 28; P = .028) time since injury. CONCLUSIONS: OFPST may be more beneficial for older children and when begun after the initial months postinjury. With these findings, we shed light on the optimal application of family problem-solving treatments within the first 2 years after injury.