This section of Pediatrics in Review reminds clinicians of those conditions that can present in a misleading fashion and require suspicion for early diagnosis. Emphasis has been placed on conditions in which early diagnosis is important and that the general pediatrician might be expected to encounter, at least once in a while. The reader is encouraged to write possible diagnoses for each case before turning to the discussion, which is on the following page.

We invite readers to contribute case presentations and discussions.

An 18-year-old boy consults you because of “blood in the urine.” Over the past 6 months he has experienced nine episodes of painless passing of bright red urine for 1 day. There has been no trauma and he has no family history of renal disease. Dipstick examination of his urine shows a small amount of blood, 1+ protein, and a positive test for leukocyte esterase. Microscopy reveals...

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