Thrombocytopenia is a decrease in platelet count more than two standard deviations below the mean of the general population, that is, less than 150 × 109/L(150,000/mm3) in adults, children, and neonates. Mild(100 to 150 × 109/L [100,000 to 150,000/mm3]) and moderate (50 to 100 ×109/L [50,000 to 100,000/mm3])thrombocytopenia rarely are associated with clinical bleeding without trauma. Bleeding without obvious trauma can appear when the platelet count falls to 20 to 30 × 109/L (20,000 to 30,000/mm3); serious bleeding usually does not occur until the platelet count is less than 10 × 109/L(10,000/mm3). The risk of bleeding may be increased by factors other than the platelet count, including recent surgery or trauma, ongoing bleeding, septic shock, other coagulation disturbances, and drugs inhibiting platelet function.

The clinical manifestations of thrombocytopenia are outlined and contrasted...

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