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One of the primary duties in medicine is to treat pain. Historically this duty has been fulfilled poorly,especially for pediatric patients. Until recently, the prevailing dogma was that children did not perceive or remember painful occurrences as intensely or as unpleasantly as did adults. There also was fear, often unfounded, that treating traumatic pain would mask the symptoms of progressive injury. Such assumptions are false, and it is no longer appropriate simply to restrain children or to withhold analgesia. As recently as 1990, Selbst and Clark reported in a retrospective study that 60% of adults but only 28% of children presenting to an emergency department(ED) with long bone fractures received adequate analgesia. In 1997, Petrack, Christopher, and Kriwinsky documented a rate of analgesic use for long bone fractures in EDs of 53% in children and 73% in adults....

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