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Mycobacteria other than those causing tuberculosis and leprosy were not recognized to cause human disease until the 1950s. The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease remained stable until the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic began in the early 1980s. Since then, the prevalence of infections and number of mycobacterial species identified as pathogens have grown significantly (Table 1). This appears to be a result not only of the increased prevalence of immunocompromised patients but of the improved ability to cultivate and speciate these organisms. Buruli ulcer (M ulcerans), found most commonly among children in countries that have tropical rain forests, is the third most common mycobacterial infection worldwide after tuberculosis and leprosy. NTM infections can occur in well children and include lymphadenitis, skin ulcers, and rarely otomastoiditis and posttraumatic soft-tissue or bone infections. In immunocompromised children,...

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