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Developmental dyslexia is characterized by an unexpected difficulty in reading in children and adults who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for accurate and fluent reading. Historically, dyslexia initially was noted in adults in the latter half of the nineteenth century, and developmental dyslexia first was reported in children in 1896. In the 1920s, it was believed that defects in the visual system were to blame for the reversals of letters and words thought to typify dyslexia. Subsequent research has shown, however, that in contrast to a popular myth, children who have dyslexia are not unusually prone to seeing letters or words backwards. Rather, they have significant difficulty in naming the letters, often calling a “b” a “d” or reading “saw” as “was.” The problem is linguistic, not visual.

Dyslexia represents one of the most common problems affecting children...

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