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Vitamins are organic compounds required in small amounts in various cellular metabolisms that are important for overall health maintenance and normal growth of the organism. First discovered by Hopkins in 1907, they were named by Funk in 1911. McCollum and Davis later showed that some vitamins, such as A, D, E, and K, are fat-soluble, and some, such as B and C, are water-soluble (Table 1).

A 5-year-old boy who recently was adopted from India is brought by his parents for his first physical examination. They report that he has been doing well except that he seems to bump into objects frequently, particularly in the evenings. On examination, his height and weight are below the 5th percentile. He has some silver-colored patches in his conjunctiva, but the rest of the examination findings are normal. A diagnosis is made clinically and...

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