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Two to three million computed tomography (CT) scans are performed on children each year in the United States, a sevenfold increase in CT use over the past 10 years. Although CT imaging has enormous diagnostic benefit, its widespread use is a source of potential harm, especially to pediatric patients. The National Research Council’s Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Children has determined that children younger than 10 years of age are several times more sensitive to ionizing radiation than...