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This review addresses a variety of oral conditions that clinicians likely encounter in their practices, some more often than others. Recognition of normal and abnormal features of a child’s mouth is an important part of the physical examination because oral health is an integral part of a child’s overall health.

Candidiasis is the most common oral fungal infection of infants and children. Although this infection can lead to serious complications when systemic, invasive, or manifested in immunocompromised individuals, it is encountered more commonly by the primary care pediatrician in a more benign presentation.

A variety of species of the genus Candida can lead to oral disease in humans, including C albicans, C glabrata, and C tropicalis. C albicans is the species associated most commonly with oral candidiasis, accounting for 70% to 80% of the oral isolates. Candida is a...

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