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Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of the metabolic homeostasis controlled by insulin, resulting in abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Type 1 diabetes (also called juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) is caused by an absolute insulin deficiency, the result of a loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by two underlying defects. The earliest abnormality in an individual who develops type 2 diabetes mellitus is insulin resistance, which initially is compensated for with an increase in insulin secretion. Type 2 diabetes mellitus then develops due to a defect in insulin secretion that prevents such secretion from matching the increased requirements imposed by the insulin-resistant state. Thus, diabetes mellitus always is caused by insulin deficiency: in type 1 diabetes mellitus, the deficiency is absolute; in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the deficiency is...

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