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Pneumonia (infection of the lung parenchyma) in children is encountered commonly in daily practice, and otherwise healthy children typically do well with outpatient treatment. It is important, however, to recognize those children who are at risk for or who already are experiencing severe or complicated pneumonia and to monitor and treat them. Pneumonia usually can be diagnosed clinically, although radiographs may be useful to corroborate the clinical findings or identify complications. Antibiotic selection is important, and the treating clinician should consider prevalent organisms, the child's age, and the presence of risk factors for atypical or resistant organisms. Occasionally, in more severe or complicated cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide intravenous (IV) antibiotics, fluids, oxygen, and other supportive measures and to facilitate necessary invasive procedures to diagnose and treat complications. Fortunately, appropriate immunization and proper personal hygiene can go far in...

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