Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential to human health and development. During the last century, intake of omega-6-rich foods (eg, plant-based oils) increased, while that of omega-3-rich foods (eg, fish and fish oils) decreased. (1)(2) The recommended ratio for dietary intake of omega-6:omega-3 ranges from 4:1 to 7.5:1. (3) The modern western diet is deficient in omega-3 fatty acids; (4) recent data suggest a 17:1 to 25:1 ratio in North America. (5)(6)(7) Evidence suggests that omega-3 deficiencies may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, dyspraxia, developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). These conditions are increasingly prevalent in western societies, with estimated prevalence rates of more than 10% in children. (8) Such conditions share a number of features: 1) affected children often experience problems in...

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