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Both day and night wetting can pose a significant problem for children, parents, and medical practitioners. The prevalence of day wetting in 7-year-old children is between 2% and 3% for boys and 3% and 4% for girls. Most cases represent a functional type of incontinence, with only a few cases due to an anatomic, neurologic, or psychiatric cause. Most children typically are trained prior to starting school, but those who continued wetting rated this happening as a significant embarrassment and life stressor. Wetting often is a significant complaint raised during a visit with the pediatrician. Data suggest that children who have prolonged enuresis have lower self-esteem.

Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is defined as nocturnal wetting in a child who has never been dry on consecutive nights for longer than 6 months. It is estimated that between 5 and 7 million children...

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