TORCH is an acronym for a group of congenitally acquired infections that may cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. TORCH stands for the following:

Toxoplasmosis

Other: syphilis, hepatitis B, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), parvovirus B19, enteroviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitic virus

Rubella

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)

Some experts consider the acronym TORCH outdated, largely due to the growing number of infections listed in the “other” category. However, use of the acronym may aid in remembering the causative organisms.

While each of the congenital infections possesses distinct clinical manifestations and sequelae, some of these infections share characteristics. It is important to think of one or more of these infections when a neonate presents with microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, rash, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated transaminase concentrations, and thrombocytopenia. However, many congenital infections may be silent at birth, with symptoms manifesting years later.

Also, some agents, such...

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