Superficial fungal infections are often mistaken for other common diseases, and the epidemiology of tinea capitis has changed, requiring adaptation in diagnostic techniques.

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Infections caused by pathogenic fungi and limited to the human hair, nails, epidermis, and mucosa are referred to as superficial fungal infections. Despite the fact that these infections rarely are dangerous or life threatening, they are important because of their worldwide distribution, frequency, person-to-person transmission, and morbidity. Furthermore, particularly severe infections or those refractory to treatment may be the first indication of an underlying immunodeficiency.

Dermatophytosis (tinea or ringworm), pityriasis versicolor (formerly tinea versicolor), and candidiasis (moniliasis) are the three most common types of superficial fungal infections. The dermatophytes are a large group of related fungi that can infect human skin, hair, and nails; they are found in soil (geophilic organisms), on animals (zoophilic), and on humans (anthropophilic)....

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