In 2010, revised guidelines were published with updated algorithms for group B Streptococcus screening, intrapartum prophylaxis, antibiotic doses, and revised management for newborns.
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Group B Streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae, is an encapsulated gram-positive diplococcus that produces a narrow zone of β-hemolysis on blood agar and generally is resistant to bacitracin. GBS can be further differentiated by type-specific capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and protein antigens. Current circulating serotypes include Ia, Ib, Ia/c, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, and IX. GBS initially was believed to be a bovine mastitis pathogen, but cases of puerperal sepsis in humans were described in the 1930s. The organism then became more prominent in the 1970s as a cause of maternal and neonatal disease.
The most common maternal manifestations are asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, chorioamnionitis, and endometritis. In infants, GBS classically presents...