With 1 to 3 in 1,000 term neonates experiencing seizures, pediatricians need to know how to determine the seizure cause and manage appropriately, using brain imaging and treatments such as therapeutic hypothermia, xenon, and other pharmacologic therapies, in order to minimize long-term sequelae and leverage the infant brain's tremendous capacity for repair in the first 2 years after birth.

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Seizures occur during the newborn period at an incidence of ∼1 to 3 per 1,000 infants born at term. (1)(2)(3) Numerous systemic and neurologic conditions can manifest as seizures. Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, defined as partial lack of oxygen resulting in reduction of blood flow to the brain, is the most frequent cause of seizures in the newborn period. It is important to determine the cause of neonatal seizures and institute the appropriate therapy to minimize the long-term sequelae of both the underlying condition...

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